# Charge ontology

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This illustration shows two wires attached to a 12V battery, and depicts the field lines (gray pattern) and the lines of equal potential (yellow). Credit: Bret Mulvey.

The nature or essential characteristics of charge, an entity in or of the universe, may be called charge ontology.

This illustration shows two wires attached to a 12V battery, and depicts the field lines (gray pattern) and the lines of equal potential (yellow). Charge does not flow on the surface of the wires because the field lines are perpendicular to the wires, nor inside the wires the field because the field is zero there.

Even when a voltage source is not connected to a circuit, it still maintains an electrical potential between its two terminals.

## Universals

Main source: Universals

Electromagnetism exists. It is neither finite not infinite but uncountable.

What came before electromagnetism? The concept of coming before (cause and effect) only comes into existence once particles are complex enough to compose the concept. But, it is an approach to understanding not necessarily understanding.

As a characteristic, the magnetic field and the electric field are at 90° to each other.

Interference when it occurs may result in a localized reorientation into a beta particle, for example.

Does the universe have a beginning? The answer is unknown because a beginning may be created by particles just as an end may be created.

Is the universe rational? It is irrational resulting in irrational real numbers such as π. The imaginary number i = (-1)1/2 does not exist in the universe but does exist in hominin mathematics.

## Dimensions

Main source: Dimensions

An apparent three dimensional space results from magnetic fields and electric fields at 90° to each other. The appearance of Euclidean dimensions occurs only from the point of view of particles within the electromagnetism. No particles, no three or four dimensions of volume, motion, or time.

## Motions

Main source: Motions

The appearance of motion occurs as interferences attract or repell.

What is gravity? A special case of attraction between particles that can be replaced by appropriate equations for electromagnetism including such forms as the strong force and weak force.

The higher the number of particles the stronger is its effect on another set of particles.

What moves through the speed of light? As the universe of electromagnetism is uncountable a method or technique for propelling or motivating an object (an enormous collection of particles appearing ordered) to move across the universe is developable.

## Times

Main source: Times

Time is a dependent variable of motion. The sequence is electromagnetism, then there are particles such as interference and diffraction, then there is propagation, followed by motion, then time.

## Theoretical charge ontology

Def. a property of matter that is responsible for electrical phenomena, existing in a positive or negative form, or a quantity of this carried by a body, is called a charge.

Def. "the quantity of unbalanced positive or negative ions in or on an object; measured in coulombs"[1] is called charge, or electric charge.

Def. the "branch of metaphysics that addresses the nature or essential characteristics of being and of things that exist; the study of being qua being"[2] is called ontology.

Usage notes

"In the field of philosophy there is some variation in how the term ontology is used. Ontology is a much more recent term than metaphysics and takes its root meaning explicitly from the Greek term for being. Ontology can be used loosely as a rough equivalent to metaphysics or more precisely to denote that subset of the domain of metaphysics which is focused rigorously on the study of being as being."[2]

Here's a theoretical definition:

Def. a study that addresses the nature or essential characteristics of a property of matter that is responsible for electrical phenomena, existing in a positive or negative form, or a quantity of this carried by a body and of such things that exist is called charge ontology.

## Photons

Main sources: Charges/Photons and Photons

Def. "a discrete particle having zero rest mass, no electric charge, and an indefinitely long lifetime"[3] is called a photon.

To make a photon from a beta particle, the spinon reorients the chargon to alternate the magnetic field and the electric field at 90° to each other.

To make a photon from a beta particle, the chargon reorients the spinon to alternate the magnetic field and the electric field at 90° to each other.

When a photon encounters a particle, it may reorient into a spinon and a chargon.

## Chargons

Main sources: Charges/Chargons and Chargons
The locus of the abrupt change in conductance that clearly moves away from the 1D parabola is the chargon. Credit: Y. Jompol, C. J. B. Ford, J. P. Griffiths, I. Farrer, G. A. C. Jones, D. Anderson, D. A. Ritchie, T. W. Silk and A. J. Schofield.

Def. "a quasiparticle produced as a result of electron spin-charge separation"[4] is called a chargon.

A chargon possesses the charge of an electron without a spin.

A spinon, in turn, possesses the spin of an electron without charge. The suggestion is that an elementary particle such as a positron may consist of at least two parts: spin and charge.

In the figure at the top of the page "the 1D parabola tracks the spin excitation (spinon)."[5]

Def. a "quasiparticle, corresponding to the orbital energy of an electron, which can result from an electron apparently ‘splitting’ under certain conditions"[6] is called an orbiton.

Both an orbiton and a spinon are kinetic or kinematic concepts applied to an electron.

Def. "a discrete particle having zero rest mass, no electric charge, and an indefinitely long lifetime"[3] is called a photon.

An electron may be thought of as a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative one.

## Electrons

The smallest particles are electrons and positrons.

## Positrons

"The reverse reaction, electron–positron creation, is a form of pair production governed by two-photon physics."[7]

"Two-photon physics, also called gamma-gamma physics, [studies] the interactions between two photons. If the energy in the center of mass system of the two photons is large enough, matter can be created.[8]"[9]

γ → e
+ e+

"In nuclear physics, [the above reaction] occurs when a high-energy photon interacts with a nucleus. ... The photon must have enough energy [> 2*511 keV, or 1.022 MeV] to create ... an electron plus a positron. ... Without a nucleus to absorb momentum, a photon decaying into electron-positron pair (or other pairs for that matter [such as a muon and anti-muon or a tau and anti-tau] can never conserve energy and momentum simultaneously. [10]"[11]

"These interactions were first observed in Patrick Blackett's counter-controlled cloud chamber ... In 2008 the Titan laser aimed at a 1-millimeter-thick gold target was used to generate positron–electron pairs in large numbers.[12]"[11]. "The LLNL scientists created the positrons by shooting the lab's high-powered Titan laser onto a one-millimeter-thick piece of gold."[12]

## Muons

The Moon's cosmic ray shadow, as seen in secondary muons generated by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, and detected 700 meters below ground, at the Soudan II detector. Credit: Deglr6328.

"The muons created through decays of secondary pions and kaons are fully polarized, which results in electron/positron decay asymmetry, which in turn causes a difference in their production spectra."[13]

## Neutrinos

The next smallest particles are neutrinos. They have a chargon balance and spinon balance like two photons together.

## Physics

Main source: Physics

In physics,

'"`UNIQ--postMath-00000001-QINU`"',

where:

• F is the force between the masses,
• G is the gravitational constant,
• m1 is the first mass,
• m2 is the second mass, and
• r is the distance between the centers of the masses, and

Coulomb's law states that the electrostatic force '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000002-QINU`"' experienced by a charge, '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000003-QINU`"' at position '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000004-QINU`"', in the vicinity of another charge, '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000005-QINU`"' at position '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000006-QINU`"', in vacuum is equal to:

'"`UNIQ--postMath-00000007-QINU`"'

so that

'"`UNIQ--postMath-00000008-QINU`"'

Reducing this

'"`UNIQ--postMath-00000009-QINU`"'
'"`UNIQ--postMath-0000000A-QINU`"'
'"`UNIQ--postMath-0000000B-QINU`"'
'"`UNIQ--postMath-0000000C-QINU`"'[14]

"That [gravitation] may actually be electrostatic charge per gram thus offers itself as an explanation of gravity. But this naive interpretation has been avoided because of the formidable problems incurred by the apparently complete nonpolarity of gravity and the absence of a satisfactory mechanism for the accumulation of the required amount of charge on one body, e.g., 1.54 x 1024 e.s.u. for the earth and 5.16 x 1029 e.s.u. for the sun."[14]

## Radiation

Main source: Radiation

There "are several reasons to believe that gravity is actually of electrical and magnetic origin."[14]

1. "the earth is being continually and uniformly bombarded by cosmic radiation at a rate evidently in excess of 1015 cosmic-ray particles per second. Moreover, the primaries of cosmic radiation are apparently almost entirely positive ions.(9) As a matter of fact our magnetic field is such as to permit penetration by charges only of e/m [about] 1014 e.s.u./gram or less. Therefore electrons would need to have relativistic masses of around 3 x 103 m0 to penetrate the earth's magnetic field. While this is well within the energy range of cosmic radiation, at least many times more positives than negatives penetrate into the earth's atmosphere. But at a minimum of 1015 elementary positive charges per second or about 106 e.s.u. per second for the whole earth the charge on the earth would increase at a rate of at least 1013 e.s.u. per year."[14]
2. the "magnetic moment of the earth has the value required by a circulating charge distribution corresponding to the charge G½ Me distributed approximately uniformly throughout the earth(1), i.e., µe = ee he/2Mec where ee is G½ Me , µe the earth's magnetic moment, he the mechanical moment of the earth and c the velocity of light."[14]
3. "the same fundamental laws [seem to] apply in celestial as in atomic and molecular (and probably also nuclear) systems. [...] gravity is intimately related to the radiation from the central body. The most important correlation bearing out this intimate relation to atomic systems is the observed coupling between orbital and spin states".[14]
4. "It is possible to take a large sample of the matter on the earth, namely that comprising the atmosphere, or 5.27 x 1021 grams, and show that it contains, within experimental error, the required electrical charge, namely about 1.36 x 1018 e.s.u. [We may] treat the atmosphere as a concentric-sphere condensor [capacitor] with the base of the atmosphere or the lithosphere as the inner sphere [and the approximate base of the ionosphere as the outer sphere. This] amounts to about 0.6 to 3.17 volts/cm (positive vertically upward so that q is positive) near the earth's surface. The average value is required to be 3.1 volts/cm in order that G½ M = q which is in excellent accord with the observed atmospheric potential gradient."[14]

## Electromagnetics

In the "case [...] of a charged sphere moving through an unlimited space filled with a medium of specific inductive capacity K. The charged sphere will produce an electric displacement throughout the field; and as the sphere moves the magnitude of this displacement at any point will vary. Now, according to Maxwell's theory, a variation in the electric displacement produces the same effect as an electric current; and a field in which electric currents exist is a seat of energy; hence the motion of the charged sphere has developed energy, and consequently the charged sphere must experience a resistance as it moves through the dielectric. But as the theory of the variation of the electric displacement does not take into account any thing corresponding to resistance in conductors, there can [be] no dissipation of energy through the medium; hence the resistance cannot be analogous to an ordinary frictional resistance, but must correspond to the resistance theoretically experienced by a solid in moving through a perfect fluid. In other words, it must be equivalent to an increase in the mass of the charged moving sphere".[15]

## Electromagnetic interactions

"Sources of electromagnetic fields consist of two types of charge – positive and negative."[16]

The relative strengths and ranges of the charge interactions:

Interaction Mediator Relative Magnitude Behavior Range
Strong interaction gluon 1038 1 10−15 m
Electromagnetic interaction photon 1036 1/r2 universal
Weak interaction W and Z bosons 1025 1/r5 to 1/r7 10−16 m
Gravity interaction photon 10 1/r2 universal

From an electromagnetic-type interaction point of view, the gravity interaction, or gravitational interaction, is a heavily charge-balanced ever so slight excess of positive charge amounting to 10-36 of a proton for the mass of a proton. Gravity owes its ability to attract other objects due to their apparent charge excess often represented by mass.

## Weak forces

"An electric system in a medium [such as interstellar plasma] whose specific inductive capacity [permittivity, ε] varies from point to point tends to move in the direction of increasing [ε]."[17]

"If [...] the specific inductive capacity of the [medium varies as the density of the plasma varies especially] near matter, gravitation may be explained as a result of this tendency."[17]

"In a medium in which at a distance from a mass [...] a rigid electrostatic system would be acted on by a force directed toward [...] the electromagnetic mass of the system."[17]

## Continua

Some "particles might be their own antimatter partners [...] The new Majorana particle showed up inside a superconductor [...] a long chain of iron atoms, which are magnetic, [were placed] on top of a superconductor made of lead. [...] the magnetic chain turned into a special type of superconductor in which electrons next to one another in the chain coordinated their spins to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of magnetism and superconductivity. Each of these pairs can be thought of as an electron and an antielectron, with a negative and a positive charge, respectively. That arrangement, however, leaves one electron at each end of the chain without a neighbor to pair with, causing them to take on the properties of both electrons and antielectrons — in other words, Majorana particles."[18]

These "Majoranas are what’s called emergent particles. They emerge from the collective properties of the surrounding matter and could not exist outside the superconductor."[18]

“Once you find the concept to be correct, it’s very likely that it shows up in another layer of physics. That’s what’s exciting.”[19]

## Hypotheses

Main source: Hypotheses
1. The charge carrier is the photon.
2. A photon carries charge as a chargon and kinetics as a spinon.
3. When photons become enparticled, an electron, a positron, or a neutrino result.
4. As electromagnetic radiation becomes enparticled, the local charge density increases.

## References

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5. Y. Jompol, C. J. B. Ford, J. P. Griffiths, I. Farrer, G. A. C. Jones, D. Anderson, D. A. Ritchie, T. W. Silk and A. J. Schofield (July 2009). "Probing spin-charge separation in a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid". Science 325 (5940): 597-601. doi:10.1126/science.1171769. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
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8. Moffat JW (1993). "Superluminary Universe: A Possible Solution to the Initial Value Problem in Cosmology". Intl J Mod Phys D 2 (3): 351–65. doi:10.1142/S0218271893000246.
9. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3505: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
10. Hubbell, J. H. (June 2006). "Electron positron pair production by photons: A historical overview". Radiation Physics and Chemistry 75 (6): 614–623. doi:10.1016/j.radphyschem.2005.10.008.
11. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3505: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
12. "Laser technique produces bevy of antimatter". MSNBC. 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-04.
13. I. V. Moskalenko and A. W. Strong (February 1, 1998). "Production and propagation of cosmic-ray positrons and electrons". The Astrophysical Journal 493 (2): 694-707. doi:10.1086/305152. Retrieved 2014-02-01.
14. Melvin Alonzo Cook (1958). Apendix III Plasma and Universal Gravitation, In: The Science of High Explosives. American Chemical Society Monograph Series. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation. pp. 440. Retrieved 2014-09-03.
15. Joseph John Thomson (1881). "On the Electric and Magnetic Effects produced by the Motion of Electrified Bodies". Philosophical Magazine 511 (68): 229-49. Retrieved 2014-09-04.
16. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3505: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
17. H. A. Wilson (1 January 1921). "An Electromagnetic Theory of Gravitation". Physical Review 17 (1): 54-9. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.17.54. Retrieved 2014-09-04.
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