# Fundamental Mathematics/Arithmetic

## Numbers[edit | edit source]

Natural number A non-negative integer. Also referred to as counting numbers. , Even number A number which can be divided by 2 without remainder. Odd number A number which cannot be divided by 2 without remainder. Prime number A number above 1 which can only be divided by 1 and itself without remainder. Integer A signed whole number. Fraction A quantity that is not a natural number or a decimal Complex Number A number made up of real and imaginary numbers. Imaginary Number

## Operations[edit | edit source]

Mathematical Operations on arithmetic numbers

**Mathematical Operation****Symbol****Example**Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Exponentiation Root Logarithm Natural Logarithm

## Expressions[edit | edit source]

An expression is a mathematical construct which evaluates to something. , , and are all expressions.

### Further reading[edit | edit source]

## Order of operations[edit | edit source]

Order of performing mathematical operation on expressions are as follows

- Evaluate expressions within parenthesis {}, [] , ()
- Exponentiation.
- Multiply and divide, from left to right.
- Add and subtract, from left to right.

Example

- (parenthesis)
- (exponentiation)
- (addition)

- (exponentiation)
- (addition)

### Further reading[edit | edit source]

## Coordinate system[edit | edit source]

### Cartesian coordinates[edit | edit source]

### Polar coordinates[edit | edit source]

### Real number coordination[edit | edit source]

A point in XY co ordinate can be presented as () and () in R θ co ordinate

- A , () , ()

**Scalar maths****Vector Maths**

### Complex number coordination[edit | edit source]

## Functions[edit | edit source]

### Definition[edit | edit source]

Functions are an arithmetical expression which relates 2 variables. Functions are usually denoted as

meaning for any value of there is a corresponding value where

- - independent variable.
- - dependent variable.
- - function of .

### Graphs of functions[edit | edit source]

**x**-2 -1 0 1 2 **f(x)**-2 -1 0 1 2

- Straight line passing through origin point (0,0) with slope equals 1

**x**-2 -1 0 1 2 **f(x)**-4 -2 0 2 4

- Straight line passing through origin point (0,0) with slope equals 2

**x**-2 -1 0 1 2 **f(x)**-1 1 3 5 7

- Straight line with slope equals 2 has x intercept (-3/2,0) and y intercept (0,3)

### Types of functions[edit | edit source]

- Polynomial Function
- Arithmetic Function/Trigonometric Functions
- Arithmetic Function/Exponential Functions
- Logarithmic Functions

### Operations on function[edit | edit source]

- Arithmetic Operation/Limit
- Arithmetic Operation/Rate of change
- Arithmetic Operation/Differentiation
- Arithmetic Operation/Integration

### Further reading[edit | edit source]

## Equations[edit | edit source]

An equation is an expression of a function of a variable that has a value equal to zero

Equations can be solved to find the value of a variable that satisfies the equation. The process of finding this value is called root finding. All values of a variable that make its function equal to zero are called roots of the equation.

### Examples[edit | edit source]

- Equation .
- Root .

- is the root of the equation since substitution the value of x in the equation we have

### Types of equations[edit | edit source]

- Polynomial Equation
- Differential Equation
- Partial Differential Equation
- Linear equation
- System of linear equations

### Further reading[edit | edit source]

## Further reading[edit | edit source]

Go to the School of Mathematics |