Fundamental Mathematics/Arithmetic

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Numbers[edit | edit source]

Natural number A non-negative integer. Also referred to as counting numbers. ,
Even number A number which can be divided by 2 without remainder.
Odd number A number which cannot be divided by 2 without remainder.
Prime number A number above 1 which can only be divided by 1 and itself without remainder.
Integer A signed whole number.
Fraction A quantity that is not a natural number or a decimal
Complex Number A number made up of real and imaginary numbers.
Imaginary Number

Operations[edit | edit source]

Mathematical Operations on arithmetic numbers

Mathematical Operation Symbol Example
Natural Logarithm

Expressions[edit | edit source]

An expression is a mathematical construct which evaluates to something. , , and are all expressions.

Further reading[edit | edit source]

Order of operations[edit | edit source]

Order of performing mathematical operation on expressions are as follows

  1. Evaluate expressions within parenthesis {}, [] , ()
  2. Exponentiation.
  3. Multiply and divide, from left to right.
  4. Add and subtract, from left to right.


  1. (parenthesis)
  2. (exponentiation)
  3. (addition)
  1. (exponentiation)
  2. (addition)

Further reading[edit | edit source]

Coordinate system[edit | edit source]

Cartesian coordinates[edit | edit source]


Polar coordinates[edit | edit source]

Examples of Polar Coordinates.svg

Real number coordination[edit | edit source]

A point in XY co ordinate can be presented as () and () in R θ co ordinate

A , () , ()
Scalar maths Vector Maths

Complex number coordination[edit | edit source]

  • Complex conjugate picture.svg

Functions[edit | edit source]

Definition[edit | edit source]

Functions are an arithmetical expression which relates 2 variables. Functions are usually denoted as

meaning for any value of there is a corresponding value where

- independent variable.
- dependent variable.
- function of .

Graphs of functions[edit | edit source]

x -2 -1 0 1 2
f(x) -2 -1 0 1 2
Straight line passing through origin point (0,0) with slope equals 1

x -2 -1 0 1 2
f(x) -4 -2 0 2 4
Straight line passing through origin point (0,0) with slope equals 2

x -2 -1 0 1 2
f(x) -1 1 3 5 7
Straight line with slope equals 2 has x intercept (-3/2,0) and y intercept (0,3)

Types of functions[edit | edit source]

Operations on function[edit | edit source]

Further reading[edit | edit source]

Equations[edit | edit source]

An equation is an expression of a function of a variable that has a value equal to zero

Equations can be solved to find the value of a variable that satisfies the equation. The process of finding this value is called root finding. All values of a variable that make its function equal to zero are called roots of the equation.

Examples[edit | edit source]

Equation .
Root .
is the root of the equation since substitution the value of x in the equation we have

Types of equations[edit | edit source]

Further reading[edit | edit source]

Further reading[edit | edit source]

Go to the School of Mathematics