Air law

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Aviation Legislation[edit]

Describe the requirements to hold an aviation document, as laid down in CA Act 1990 S7

Describe the criteria for the fit an proper person test, as laid down in CA Act 1990 S10

Describe the duties of the pilot-in-command, as laid down in CA Act 1990 S13 and 13A

CA Act 1990 S43 amd 44.

Definitions[edit]

CAR Part 1 (unless otherwise noted)

State the definition of:

* accident means an occurrence that is associated with the operation of an aircraft and takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and such time as all such persons have disembarked and the engine or any propellers or rotors come to rest, being an occurrence in which—

(1) a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of—

(i) being in the aircraft; or

(ii) direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including any part that has become detached from the aircraft; or

(iii) direct exposure to jet blast— except when the injuries are self-inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or when the injuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to passengers and crew; or

(2) the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure that—

(i) adversely affects the structural strength, performance, or flight characteristics of the aircraft; and (ii) would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component— except engine failure or damage that is limited to the engine, its cowlings, or accessories, or damage limited to propellers, wing tips, rotors, antennas, tyres, brakes, fairings, small dents, or puncture holes in the aircraft skin; or (3) the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible

* act means the Civil Aviation Act 1990

* aerobatic flight means— (1) an intentional manoeuvre in which the aircraft is in sustained inverted flight or is rolled from upright to inverted or from inverted to upright position; or (2) manoeuvres such as rolls, loops, spins, upward vertical flight culminating in a stall turn, hammerhead or whip stall, or a combination of such manoeuvres

* aerodrome operational area means— (1) the movement area at an aerodrome and its associated strips and safety areas; and (2) any ground installation or facility provided at an aerodrome for the safety of aircraft operations: * aerodrome traffic circuit

* aeronautical information circular means a notice containing information that— (1) does not qualify for the origination of a NOTAM or for inclusion in the AIPNZ; and (2) relates to flight safety, air navigation, technical, administrative or legislative matters:

* aeronautical information publication means a publication issued by, or with the authority of, a State and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation:

* AIP supplement means temporary changes to the information contained in the AIPNZ that are published by means of special pages:

* air traffic control (ATC) service means a service provided for the purposes of— (1) preventing collisions— (i) between aircraft; and (ii) between aircraft and obstructions on any manoeuvering area; and (2) expediting and maintaining a safe and efficient flow of air traffic:


* airworthiness certificate means— (1) for a New Zealand registered aircraft, an airworthiness certificate issued by the Director under Part 21, Subpart H; and (2) for a foreign registered aircraft, an airworthiness certificate issued by the competent authority of the State of registry:


* airworthy condition means the condition of an aircraft, including its components, fuel, and other materials and substances essential to the manufacture and operation of the aircraft, that complies with all the requirements prescribed by the Civil Aviation Rules relating to design, manufacture, maintenance, modification, repair, and safety:

* alerting service means an air traffic service provided to notify appropriate organisations regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue aid, and to assist such organisations as required:


* altitude means the vertical distance of a level, a point, or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level:


* ATC clearance means authorisation for an aircraft to proceed under conditions specified by an air traffic control unit:

* ATC instruction means a directive issued by ATC for the purpose of requiring a pilot to take a specific action:

* aviation event means an event to be conducted below the minimum safe heights prescribed under Part 91 that is— (1) an air show or practice for an air show; or (2) an air race or practice for an air race; or (3) an aerobatic competition; or (4) aerobatic training or practice:

* AWIB service means an automatic broadcast of aerodrome and weather information provided specifically for the facilitation of aviation, and for the avoidance of doubt, an AWIB service is not an air traffic service:

* ceiling means the height above ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 20 000 feet covering more than half the sky:

* controlled flight means any flight that is subject to an ATC clearance:

* cost sharing flight means any flight that is performed solely for the carriage of persons where— (1) the flight is not advertised to the public; and (2) the crew members receive no payment or other reward for their services; and (3) the persons carried by the aircraft, including the crew members, share equally in the cost of the flight; and (4) no payment or other reward is required of a person on the flight other than that specified in subparagraph (3)— and, for the avoidance of doubt, a cost sharing flight is not an operation for hire or reward:

* cross-country flight means a flight which extends more than 25 nautical miles in a straight line distance from the centre of the aerodrome of departure:

* dangerous goods means articles or substances that are capable of posing risk to health, safety, property, or the environment and— (a) are listed in, or classified in accordance with, the ICAO’s Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air; or (b) have properties that would result in the articles or substances being classified as dangerous goods under the ICAO’s Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air:

* day means the hours between—

(1) the beginning of morning civil twilight, which is when the centre of the rising sun’s disc is 6 degrees below the horizon; and (2) the end of evening civil twilight, which is when the centre of the setting sun’s disc is 6 degrees below the horizon:

* dual flight time means flight time during which a person is receiving flight instruction from an appropriately licensed and rated pilot on board a dual control aircraft:

* final reserve fuel means the minimum quantity of fuel required to provide a margin to secure the safe completion of a flight in the event of any unplanned manoeuvring in the vicinity of the destination or alternate or a suitable aerodrome, as the case may be, and in ordinary circumstances remains on board until completion of the landing:

* fit and proper person means a person who satisfies the fit and proper person test specified in the Act:

* flight examiner means a person who holds a flight examiner rating issued in accordance with Part 61 or is approved by the Director to conduct specific flight tests:

* flight information service means a service providing a flight watch over an aircraft, which initiates emergency action in the event of a missed report or non-arrival of the aircraft within a specific time-frame:

* flight manual means a manual, associated with the certificate of airworthiness, containing limitations within which the aircraft may be considered airworthy, and instructions and information necessary to the flight crew members for the safe operation of the aircraft:

* flight plan means specified information that is required under the rules to be provided to an ATS unit or to a flight following service regarding an intended flight, or portion of a flight, of an aircraft:

* flight time means the total time from the moment an aircraft first moves for the purpose of flight until the moment it comes to rest at the end of the flight including all associated push back, taxiing and subsequent holding time

* height means the vertical distance of a level, a point, or an object considered as a point, measured from a specified datum and includes the vertical dimension of an object:

* incident means any occurrence, other than an accident, that is associated with the operation of an aircraft and affects or could affect the safety of operation:

* night means the hours between— (1) the end of evening civil twilight, which is when the centre of the setting sun’s disc is 6 degrees below the horizon; and (2) the beginning of morning civil twilight, which is when the centre of the rising sun’s disc is 6 degrees below the horizon:

* NOTAM means a notice distributed by means of telecommunication containing information concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations:

* pilot-in-command in relation to any aircraft, means the pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft:

* rating means an authorisation entered on, or associated with, a licence, certificate, or logbook, and forming part of it, stating special conditions, privileges, or limitations relating to the licence or certificate:

* SARTIME means the time nominated by a pilot for the initiation of alerting action

* takeoff weight means the weight of the aeroplane at the commencement of the take-off run and includes everything and everyone carried in or on the aeroplane at the commencement of the take-off run:

* threshold (CAR 121.3)

* type— (1) in relation to the licensing of aviation personnel means all aircraft of the same basic design, including all modifications thereto except those modifications which result in a significant change in handling or flight characteristics; or

(2) in relation to the certification of aircraft, aircraft engines, or propellers, means those aircraft, aircraft engines or propellers which are similar in design:

* Technical Instructions means ICAO Document 9284 Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air approved and published by decision of the Council of the International Civil Aviation Organisation under Annex 18 of the Convention:

* UNICOM service means a ground radio communications service in the aeronautical mobile service providing local aerodrome information for the facilitation of aviation, and, for the avoidance of doubt, a UNICOM service is not an air traffic service:

* VFR flight means a flight conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules:

* visibility means the ability, as determined by atmospheric conditions and expressed in units of measurement, to see and identify prominent unlighted objects by day and prominent lighted objects by night:

* visual meteorological conditions means meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling equal to or better than specified minima:

Abbreviations[edit]

CAR Part 1(unless otherwise noted)

State the meaning of the following abbreviations:

* ABM

* AGL means above ground level

* AMSL means above mean sea level:

* ATIS means automatic terminal information service

* AWIB means an Aerodrome and Weather Information Broadcast:

* BWR (AIP GEN) means a Basic Weather Report

* CAR means Civil Aviation Rules:

* ELT means emergency locator transmitter:

* QNH means an altimeter sub-scale setting to obtain elevation when on the ground:

* VFR means visual flight rules:

PERSONNEL LISENCING

Requirements for Licenses and Ratings[edit]

State the requirements for holding a pilot's lisence. CAR 61

State the requirements for a pilot-in-command to hold a type rating on the type of aircraft being flown. CAR 61

State the restrictions associated with abuse of substances. CAR 61

State the requirements for entering flight details into a pilot's logbook. CAR 61

Eligibility, Privileges and Limitations[edit]

Describe the allowance for a person who does not hold a current pilot lisence to fly dual with a flying instructor. CAR61

State the solo flight requirements on a person who does not hold a current pilot lisence. CAR 61

State the limitations on a person who does not hold a current pilot lisence. CAR 61

State the eligibility requirements for the issue of a private pilot lisence. CAR 61

State the privileges of holding a private pilot lisence. CAR 61

State the limitations on the holder of a private pilot lisence. CAR 61

State the requirements and imitations of a PPL holder sharing the cost of a flight. CAR 1

Currency and Recency[edit]

State the recent experience requirements of a pilot-in-command, by day and by night, who is the holder of a private pilot lisence. CAR61

State the requirements for the completion of a biennial flight review. CAR61

Medical Requirements[edit]

State the requirements for holding a medical certificate. CAR61

State the requirements on a person applying for a medical certificate. CAR61

State the requirements for maintaining medical fitness followintg the issue of a medical certificate CA Act 1990 S27C

State the normal currency period of the Class 2 medical certificate for a PPL holder who is under the age of 40. CAR67

State the normal curency period of the Class 2 medical certificate for a PPL holder who is 40 years of age but less than 50 years of age on the date that the certificate is issued. CAR67

State the normal currency period of the Class 2 medical certificate for a PPL holder who is 50 years of age or more on the date that the certificare is issued. CAR67

Airworthiness of Aircraft and Aircraft Equipment

Documentation[edit]

State the documents which must be carries in aircraft operated in New Zealand. CAR 91

Aircraft Maintenance[edit]

Describe the mintenance requirements of an aircraft operator. CAR 91

State the requirement for annual and 100 hour inspections. CAR 91

State the requirements for an annual review of airworthiness. CAR 91

State the requirements for maintenance records. CAR 91

State the requirements and contents of a technical log. CAR 91

State the requirements for entering defects into a technical log. CAR 91

State the requirements for clearing defects from a technical log. CAR 91

State the limitations and requirements on a person undertaking 'piot maintenance'. CAR 43

State the requirements for conducting a maintenance test flight on an aircraft without a current airworthiness certificate. CAR 91

State the inspection period for radios. CAR 91

State the inspection period for altimeters. CAR 91

State the inspection period for transponders. CAR 91

State the inspection period for the ELT. CAR 91

Instruments and Avionics[edit]

State the minimum instrument requirements for a day VFR flight. CAR 91

State the minimum instrument requirements for a night VFR flight. CAR 91

State the radio equipment requirements for a VFR flight. CAR 91

State the communications and navigation equipment requirements for a VFR over water flight. CAR 91

Equipment[edit]

State the equipment requirements for a night VFR flight. CAR 91

State the equipment requirements for flight over water. CAR 91

State the requirements for indicating the time in flight. CAR 91

State the requirements for emergency equipment in aircraft with seating capacity for less than 10 passengers. CAR 91

State the requirements for an ELT. CAR 91

State the requirements for night flight. CAR 91

General Operating and Flight Rules

General Operating Requirements[edit]

Describe the requirements of passengers to comply with instructions and commands. CAR 91

State the requirements for operating an aircraft in simulated instrument flight. CAR 91

State the requirements of a pilot-in-command with respect to the safe operation of an aircraft. CAR 91

Describe the authority of the pilot-in-command. CAR 91

State ther requirements for crew occupation of seats and wearing safety belts. CAR 91

State the requirements for the occupation of seats and wearing of restraints. CAR 91

State the requirememnts for the use of oxygen equipment. CAR 91

State the requirements for briefing passengers prior to flight. CAR 91

State the requirements for carrying appropriate aeronautical publications and charts in flight. CAR 91

State the requirements for operating on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome. CAR 91

Describe the standard overhead rejoin procedure, and state when it should be used. AIP AD

State the right-of-way rules. CAR 91

Explain the requirement for aircraft lighting. CAR 91

State the requirements for wearing/holding identity documentation in certain areas. CAR 19

General Operating Restrictions[edit]

State the restrictions on smoking in an aircraft, CA Act 1990 S65N

State the restrictions on the use of portable electronic devices in flight. CAR 91

State the restrictions on the carriage and discharge of firearms on aircraft. CAR 91

Explain the restrictions on stowage of carry-on baggage. CAR 91

Explain the restrictions on the carriage of cargo. CAR 91

State the restrictions applicable to aircraft flying near other aircraft. CAR 91

State the restrictions on the dropping of onjects from an aircraft in flight. CAR 91

State the speed limitation on aircragt operating under VFR. CAR 91

State the minimum heights for VFR flights under CAR Part 91. CAR 91

State the restrictions when operating VFR in icing conditions. CAR 91

State the restrictions applicable to operating an aircraft in aerobatic flight. CAR 91

State the restrictions applicable to parachute-drop operations. CAR 91

State the restrictions applicable to aircraft towing gliders. CAR 91

State the restrictions applicable to aircraft towing objects other than gliders. CAR 91

State the restrictions on intoxicating liquor and drugs. CAR 91 & CAR 19

General Meteorological Requirements and Restrictions[edit]

State the met minima for VFR flight in various airspace. CAR 91

State the restrictions and met minima for Special VFR flight. CAR 91

Flight Planning and Preparation

Flight Preparation[edit]

Explain the requirements for obtaining and considering relevant information prior to flight. CAR 91

Describe the publications and their content, that provide operational route and aerodrome information.

Derive operational information from charts and publications that provide route and aerodrome information.

Fuel Requirements[edit]

State the minimum fuel reserve required for a day VFR flight. CAR 91

State the minimum fuel reserve required for a night VFR flight. CAR 91

Flight Plans[edit]

State the requirements for the filing of a flight plan for flight unfer VFR. CAR 91

State the requirements for notification of changes to the filed flight plan. CAR 91

State the requirements for terminating a flight plan. CAR 91

State the time search and rescue action would be initiated if a flight plan is not terminated. AIP ENR

Air Traffic Services

Communications[edit]

Derive from operational publications, the required radio frequency for communicating with specified ATC units.

Explain the use of aircraft radiotelephony callsigns. CAR 91

State the requirements for making position reports to an ATS unit. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

State the content of a VFR position report. AIP ENR

State the purpose of Universal Communications Services (UNICOM). AIP GEN

State the purpose of an Aerodrome Frequency Response Unit (ARFU). AIP GEN

State the purpose of Aerodrome and Weather Information Broadcasts (AWIB). AIP GEN

State the meaning of the various light signals from a control tower. CAR 91 & AIP AD

State the communications requirements when TIBA procedures are in force. AIP ENR

Clearances[edit]

State the requirements for complying with ATC clearances and instructions. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

State the requirements for coordinatins with an aerodrome flight information service. CAR 91

State the requirements for recieving an ATC clearance prior to entering various types of airspace, and ground manoeuvring area. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

State the requirements for recieving an ATC clearance prior to re-entering controlled airspace. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

Separation[edit]

Describe the method of passing traffic information using the clock code.

Describe the situations where Air Traffic Control is responsible for the provision of separation between VFR, SVFR and IFR traffic. AIP ENR

Describe the situations where the pilot-in-command is responsible for maintaining separation from other traffic. AIP ENR

Describe the normal separation standards applied by ATC. AIP ENR

Describe the situations where the normal separation may be reduced. AIP ENR

State the wake turbulence separation requirements for light aircraft in non-radar environment. AIP AD

Radar Services[edit]

Describe the radar services available to VFR flights. AIP ENR

<Airspace; Aerodromes; and Heliports

Altimetry[edit]

Explain the altimeter setting requirements for flight under VFR. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

State the altimeter setting to use when QNH is not available prior to takeoff. AIP ENR

Describe QNH zones and state when zone QNH should be used. AIP ENR


Cruising Levels[edit]

State the altitude requirements when cruising VFR within the New Zealand Domestic FIR. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

Describe situations where ATC may assign cruising altitudes not in accordance with the VFR table of cruising levels


Transponders[edit]

State the requirements for the operation of transponders within the New ZZealand Domestic FIR. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

Describe the procedures required of pilots operating transponders. AIP ENR

State the requirements and linitations on an aircraft operating under VFR in transponder mandatory airspace without an operating transponder. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

Airspace[edit]

State the rules pertaining to operating VFR in the various classes of airspace. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

Describe the vertical limits and purpose of control zones (CTR). CAR 71

Describe the vertical limits and purpose of control areas (CTA). CAR 71

State the status and conditions relating to flight in VFR transit lanes. AIP ENR

Describe the status ane purpose of a general aviation area (GAA). CAR 91 & AIP ENR

Describe control zone sectors. CAR 71

Describe visual reporting points.

Describe the status of controlled airspace when ATC go off duty. AIP GEN

State the restrictions on operating an aircraft in a restricted area. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

State the restrictions on operating an aircraft in a military operating area (MOA). CAR 91 & AIP ENR

State the restrictions and operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft in a mandatory broadcast zone (MBZ). CAR 91 & AIP ENR

State the restrictions and operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft in a volcanic hazard zone (VHZ). CAR 91 & AIP ENR

State the restrictions and operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft in a danger area. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

State the restrictions and operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft in a designated low flying zone (LFZ). CAR 91 & AIP ENR

State the restrictions and operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft in VFR special procedures areas (SPA). AIP ENR

State the operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft over or close to temporary hazards/airspace. AIP ENR

Interpret airspace information on aeronautical charts.

-Everything detailedas it is.

Aerodromes and Heliports[edit]

Describe the limitations on the use of a place as an aerodrome or heliport. CAR 91

Describe the method of runway designation. AIP AD

Describe the movement area of an aerodrome. CAR 1

Describe the meaning of various aerodrome ground signals.

Interpret information on aerodrome/heliport charats. AIP GEN & AIP Volume 4

Carriage of Dangerous Goods[edit]

State the restriction for the carriage of dangerous goods in an aircraft. CAR 92

State the requirements for the carriage of non-dangerous goods in an aircraft. CAR 92

Emergencies; Incidents; and Accidents

Responsibilities of Pilots[edit]

State the requirement for the notification of accidents. CAT 12

State the requirement for the notification of incidents. CAR 12

State the extent to which a pilot may deviate from the CA Act or rules in an emergency situation. CA Act 1990 S13A

State the pilot action required following deviation from the CA Act or rules in an emergency situation. CA Act 1990 S13A

Communications and Equipment[edit]

State the transponder code a pilot should set to indicate an emergency condition. AIP ENR

State the transponder code a pilot should set to indicate a loss of communications. AIP ENR

State the transponder code a pilot should set to indicate the aircraft is being subjected to unlawful interference. AIP ENR

Describe the means by which ATC will verify the transmission of an emergency SSR transponder code. AIP ENR

Describe the use of speechless technique using unmodulated transmissions. AIP ENR

Describe and interpret ground-air visual signal codes. AIP GEN

Describe the procedures for directing a surface craft to a distress incident. AIP GEN

State the procedures for the emergency activitation of an ELT. AIP GEN

State the pilot action required following the inadvertant transmission of an ELT. AIP GEN

State the requirements for the operational testing of an ELT. AIP GEN

State the procedures to be followed on recieving an ELT signal. AIP GEN

External links[edit]