Æzu’ä/Level I/Orthography

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Courses
1: Introduction
2: Level I
3: Level II
4: Level III
Lessons
i: Orthography 100%
ii: Numbers 25%
iii: Pronouns 50%
iv: Verbs 50%
v: Nouns 25%
vi: Adjectives 25%
vii: Adverbs 25%
viii: Particles 25%

Overview[edit]

Before one can begin learning Æzu’ä, one must know how to pronounce the language. Each letter, or grapheme, represents a different sound, or phoneme. The one-to-one relationship between phonemes and graphemes in a language is known as phonemic orthography. Most of the consonants in Æzu’ä are the same as an English, although there are a few differences. The vowels are relatively similar, but will require slightly more memorizing. In English, letters can represent a variety of sounds, whereas in Æzu’ä, most letters can only represent one specific sound.

Rules[edit]

In English, spelling and pronunciation can be tricky because there is an incredibly large amount of rules and just as many exceptions. In Æzu’ä, there are very few rules and very few exceptions to those rules, which makes it a lot easier to both pronounce and spell the language. The below list shows these rules as well as their exceptions, which will be handy if one should revisit it.

  1. Each letter makes one distinct sound, as well as the apostrophe.
    • Exception 1: The graphemes ⟨bb⟩ and ⟨rr⟩ represent different sounds than their single-letter counterparts.
      • The grapheme ⟨b⟩ represents the sound /b/.
      • The grapheme ⟨bb⟩ represents the sound /ʙ/.
      • The grapheme ⟨r⟩ represents the sound /ɹ/.
      • The grapheme ⟨rr⟩ represents the sound /ʀ/.
    • Exception 2: The letters æ and œ represent two sounds, not just one.
      • The letter æ represents the sound /aɪ/, which can also be written as /aj/.
      • The letter œ represents the sound /ɔɪ/, which can also be written as /ɔj/.
    • Note: In English, the "hard j" sound and the "ch" sounds are single phonemes. In Æzu’ä, they are actually composed of two sounds.
      • The first one is composed of the phonemes /d/ and /ʒ/.
      • The second is composed of the phonemes /t/ and /ʃ/.
  2. The grapheme ⟨j⟩ can never be placed in front of a consonant.
    • Note: This is why æ and œ exist. The phoneme /j/ still is present; the spelling is just changed so that äj or öj are not there.
  3. Vowels can never be next to each other.
    • Note: Various constructions have arose to follow this rule.
      • In some words, such as Æzu’ä itself and various verb constructions, the space has been filled with an apostrophe.
      • When adding prefixes, they are often truncated to prevent this problem, such as in dwæ.
      • The changing of äj and öj to æ and œ tinkers with this rule, because the second forms are technically vowels. If the new spelling puts two vowels next to each other, the letter j is inserted between them.
  4. Fricatives and plosives can only be paired if they are both either voiced or voiceless; this property cannot be different.
  5. Stress is typically put on the first syllable of a word.

Vowels[edit]

Short vowels[edit]

Grapheme Phoneme Example
a About this sound /æ/  apple, cat
e About this sound /ɛ/  every, bed
i About this sound /ɪ/  stick, mix
o About this sound /ʊ/  good, foot
u About this sound /ʌ/  under, stuff
y About this sound /ʏ/  Icelandic vinur

Long vowels[edit]

Grapheme Phoneme Example
ä About this sound /aː/  Mandarin ma
ë About this sound /əː/  butter, sofa
ï About this sound /iː/  redo, ease
ö About this sound /ɔː/  ought, dawn
ü About this sound /uː/  grew, goose
ÿ About this sound /yː/  French tu

Diphthongs[edit]

Grapheme Phoneme Example
æ /aɪ/ or /aj/ sigh, stride
œ /ɔɪ/ or /ɔj/ soy, void

Consonants[edit]

Fricatives[edit]

Grapheme Phoneme Example
f About this sound /f/  felt, laugh
v About this sound /v/  visa, save
s About this sound /s/  sales, wisp
z About this sound /z/  zebra, has
c About this sound /ʃ/  shell, chef
q About this sound /ʒ/  pleasure, beige
h About this sound /h/  hear, hole
x About this sound /χ/  Hebrew אוכל

Plosives[edit]

Grapheme Phoneme Example
p About this sound /p/  paper, app
b About this sound /b/  babble, tab
t About this sound /t/  tattle, bat
d About this sound /d/  doodle, had
k About this sound /k/  stack, chaos
g About this sound /g/  goggle, drag

Approximants[edit]

Grapheme Phoneme Example
r About this sound /ɹ/  rare, par
j About this sound /j/  year, yacht
l About this sound /l/  level, lily
w About this sound /w/  swell, wit

Nasals[edit]

Grapheme Phoneme Example
m About this sound /m/  mail, armor
n About this sound /n/  naan, reign

Trills[edit]

Grapheme Phoneme Example
bb About this sound /ʙ/  Nias simbi
rr About this sound /ʀ/  German rübe

Clicks[edit]

Grapheme Phoneme Example
About this sound /ʇ/  Zulu icici

Exercises[edit]

Characters[edit]

Note: This table may be used if you cannot type certain characters used in Æzu’ä.

ä
ë
ï
ö
ü
ÿ
æ
œ

Part 1[edit]

Part 1: In the following conversation, spell the italicized English word as if it was a word in Æzu’ä, keeping the pronunciation the same.

1

Johan: It's a sign of the end of the world!

2

Emily: Can you really determine the fate of everyone on Earth?

3

Johan: Yes, my book knows the answer to everything!

4

Emily: Yeah right, books cannot predict the future.

5

Johan: Well, it does says that oysters will cause our ultimate end...


Part 2[edit]

Part 2: Read the following syllables aloud to practice the basic sounds, as it seems necessary.

1.  Fricatives between short vowels

afa
efe
ifi
ofo
ufu
yfy
ava
eve
ivi
ovo
uvu
yvy
asa
ese
isi
oso
usu
ysy
aza
eze
izi
ozo
uzu
yzy
aca
ece
ici
oco
ucu
ycy
aqa
eqe
iqi
oqo
uqu
yqy
aha
ehe
ihi
oho
uhu
yhy
axa
exe
ixi
oxo
uxu
yxy

2.  Fricatives between long vowels

äfä
ëfë
ïfï
öfö
üfü
ÿfÿ
ävä
ëvë
ïvï
övö
üvü
ÿvÿ
äsä
ësë
ïsï
ösö
üsü
ÿsÿ
äzä
ëzë
ïzï
özö
üzü
ÿzÿ
äcä
ëcë
ïcï
öcö
ücü
ÿcÿ
äqä
ëqë
ïqï
öqö
üqü
ÿqÿ
ähä
ëhë
ïhï
öhö
ühü
ÿhÿ
äxä
ëxë
ïxï
öxö
üxü
ÿxÿ

3.  Plosives between short vowels

apa
epe
ipi
opo
upu
ypy
aba
ebe
ibi
obo
ubu
yby
ata
ete
iti
oto
utu
yty
ada
ede
idi
odo
udu
ydy
aka
eke
iki
oko
uku
yky
aga
ege
igi
ogo
ugu
ygy

4.  Plosives between long vowels

äpä
ëpë
ïpï
öpö
üpü
ÿpÿ
äbä
ëbë
ïbï
öbö
übü
ÿbÿ
ätä
ëtë
ïtï
ötö
ütü
ÿtÿ
ädä
ëdë
ïdï
ödö
üdü
ÿdÿ
äkä
ëkë
ïkï
ökö
ükü
ÿkÿ
ägä
ëgë
ïgï
ögö
ügü
ÿgÿ

5.  Approximants between short vowels

ara
ere
iri
oro
uru
yry
aja
eje
iji
ojo
uju
yjy
ala
ele
ili
olo
ulu
yly
awa
ewe
iwi
owo
uwu
ywy

6.  Approximants between long vowels

ärä
ërë
ïrï
örö
ürü
ÿrÿ
æjä
ëjë
ïjï
œjö
üjü
ÿjÿ
älä
ëlë
ïlï
ölö
ülü
ÿlÿ
äwä
ëwë
ïwï
öwö
üwü
ÿwÿ

7.  Nasals between short vowels

ama
eme
imi
omo
umu
ymy
ana
ene
ini
ono
unu
yny

8.  Nasals between long vowels

ämä
ëmë
ïmï
ömö
ümü
ÿmÿ
änä
ënë
ïnï
önö
ünü
ÿnÿ

9.  Trills between short vowels

abba
ebbe
ibbi
obbo
ubbu
ybby
arra
erre
irri
orro
urru
yrry

10.  Trills between long vowels

äbbä
ëbbë
ïbbï
öbbö
übbü
ÿbbÿ
ärrä
ërrë
ïrrï
örrö
ürrü
ÿrrÿ

11.  Clicks between short vowels

a’a
e’e
i’i
o’o
u’u
y’y

12.  Clicks between long vowels

ä’ä
ë’ë
ï’ï
ö’ö
ü’ü
ÿ’ÿ