# User:Eas4200c.f08/Introduction

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aircraft design goals: want aircraft to be light, yet strong

aircraft materials: high stiffness, high strength, light weight

two aspects of a structure: geometry and material

"Monocoque (French for "single" (mono) and "shell" (coque)) is a construction technique that supports structural load using an object's external skin. This stands in contrast with using an internal framework (or truss) that is then covered with a non-load-bearing skin. Monocoque construction was first widely used in aircraft, starting in the 1930s." from monocoque in wikipedia

"When these designs started appearing it was realized that the skin itself had significant structural properties of its own. With a sufficient thickness, one could do away with all of the internal structure. However this would be even heavier than the framing would have been. At thinner gauges the skin could easily provide the structure for tension and shear loads (metal resists being pulled apart quite well), and if bent into a curve or pipe, it became quite strong against bending loads as well. The only loading it could not handle on its own — at least for thin "skins" — was compression. Combining this sort of structural skin with a greatly reduced internal stiffening to provide strength against buckling in compression led to what is known as "semi-monocoque"." from monocoque in wikipedia

• design of aircraft geometry also limited by aerodynamic consideration, such as lift and drag of airfoil
• want aircraft materials be used to full capacity (to avoid having more weight than is useful)
• optimize aircraft materials: replace aluminum and titanium by fiber reinforced composites, save 30% to 40% in weight
File:C01f001.jpg
fig.1.1. Materials used in the F/A-18E Hornet jet. book, p.3.

suggested contribution: the above figure is not clear; it is not easy to distinguish various gray shades. find a better figure showing the structure of an aircraft and the material used in each part. $\displaystyle \bigstar$

• 50% of Boeing 787 is made of composites.

suggested contribution: find a picture of this aircraft. $\displaystyle \bigstar$

# Further reading

Sun (2006), pp.1-2.

monocoque / semi-monocoque : informative wikipedia article with figures, history, links to different specific airplanes built, applications other than aircraft. archived article

T. C. Wittenberg, T. J. van Baten and A. de Boer, Design of fiber metal laminate shear panels for ultra-high capacity aircraft, Aircraft Design Volume 4, Issues 2-3, June-September 2001, Pages 99-113.

suggested contribution: write a short wiki article on fiber metal composite. Discuss the difference with Metal matrix composite. $\displaystyle \bigstar$