Web Science/Part1: Foundations of the web

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Completing the first part of the Web Science MOOC you will

  • know that the w:World Wide Web is an application on the w:Internet.
  • be able to distinguish between the Internet from the World wide web.
  • understand the design principles of the Internet architecture (decentrality, openness, interoperability)
  • understand the design principles of the World Wide Web (URI, HTTP, HTML)
  • understand that the web could have been build on top of any communication system not only the Internet.

Besides the fundamental design choices that have been made and which will be motivated from a historic point of view you will also understand the crucial importance of things like:

  • RFCs (for interoperability and openness)
  • 404 (for web scalability)
  • applications that are similar to the world wide web (usenet, goopher,...)

This part is divided into two (maybe three) Blocks.

  1. Design Principles of the Internet
  2. Design Principles of the World Wide Web
  3. Maybe also a semantic web block?


There is more information to be integrated from this currently outdated site


1st week due October 28th

Link Layer: Ethernet[edit]

Video
and script
Associated Lesson
Communication over a shared Medium
Ethernet Header
Minimum Package length vs Maximum cable length
Collision Detection
no video Summary, Further readings & Homework

The following video of the flipped classroom associated with this topic are available:

You can find more information on wiki commons and also directly download this file

Internet Layer: Internet Protocol (IP)[edit]

Video
and script
Associated Lesson
Motivation for IP
Classfull IPv4 networks
IP forwarding algorithm
IP header
no video Summary, Further reading, Homework

The following video of the flipped classroom associated with this topic are available:

You can find more information on wiki commons and also directly download this file




2nd week due November 4th

Transport Layer: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)[edit]

Video
and script
Associated Lesson
End to End Principle and Connection oriented Communication
3 way handshake
Port Numbers
Sliding Window and Flow Control
no video Summary, Further readings, Homework

The following video of the flipped classroom associated with this topic are available:

You can find more information on wiki commons and also directly download this file

Application layer: Domain Name System (DNS)[edit]

Video
and script
Associated Lesson
Tree Structure
Terminology
Zones
Review some facts about DNS
Delegating DNS Queries
DNS Address Resolution
Summary, Further readings & Homework

The following video of the flipped classroom associated with this topic are available:

You can find more information on wiki commons and also directly download this file


3rd week due Nov 11th


Internet vs World Wide Web[edit]

Video
and script
Associated Lesson
Summary of the Internet Architecture
Motivation and Requirements for the World wide web
Design Principles of the Web
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
no video available Summary, Further readings, Homework

The following video of the flipped classroom associated with this topic are available:

You can find more information on wiki commons and also directly download this file

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)[edit]

Video
and script
Associated Lesson
Making HTTP requests
A Simple Web Client
A Simple Web Server
The HTTP Header
Content negotiation
Summary, Further readings, Homework

The following video of the flipped classroom associated with this topic are available:

You can find more information on wiki commons and also directly download this file


4th week due Nov 18th

Web Content[edit]

  • Wget script (Linux) to download all the videos of this part.
Video
and script
Associated Lesson Further resources Description
Problem Setting for Web Content Formats In this lesson you will learn some basics on the Question: Why Web Content needs structure and proper markup.
Working with XML
  • Understand the Domain Object Model and the DOM tree
  • Understand that HTML is just a special dialect of XML
  • Understand the relationship between HTML and XML
HTML for Web Document Structures
  • Be able to write simple HTML code having learned a few example elements of HTML (headings, paragraphs, lists, tables, links, anchors, emphasize, input fields; but also few dirty ones like italics, color,...)
  • See that HTML really is just another simple mark up and has nothing to do with programming
  • Be able to structure web Content using HTML and create pages following a specified structure.
Layout Elements in HTML
  • Know about the style attribute and how to use it within HTML elements
  • Know already realize that there are some limits using the style attribute
  • be able to create websites that follow a certain style guide
Motivating Separation of Content and Layout
  • See the problems with inline styles
  • Understand that a style sheet gives you freedom
  • being able to explain people why they should use style sheets
Cascading Stylesheets (CSS)
  • be able to name at least 2 important point why to use style sheets
  • know how the cascading process works
  • know the basic syntax of cascading stylesheets
Media Content
  • know how to include a media file like a graphic to your webpage.
  • understand that images like jpg, gif and bitmaps are hard for machines to understand.
  • Know how to use a XML based format to create images that are easy to understand for machines and humans an can even make use of stylesheets.
Metadata
  • Understand that metadata is necessary to communicate the semantics of content
  • See that using metadata for ranking in search results is a bad idea
  • get introduced to modern ways of publishing media data as RDFa
no video Summary, Further readings & Homework
  • Understand the separation between content, structure, layout and meta data
  • Review HTML, CSS, XML, SVG and RDFa
  • Understand what makes a clean HTML markup ("separation of concerns") vs. unclean one ("mixing responsibilities"); and implications (better or worse maintenance, better or worse personalization, better or worse accessibility)

The following video of the flipped classroom associated with this topic are available:

You can find more information on wiki commons and also directly download this file


5th week due November 25th

Dynamic Content on the Web[edit]

Video
and script
Associated Lesson Further resources Description
Problemsetting for working with Dynamic Web Content and software setup.
Basics of server side web programming
  • become aware of the possibilities to create dynamic content within a webserver
  • see that you don't have to implement a webserver to be able to serve dynamic content
  • understand some main issues like blocking I/O that one should keep in mind when doing server side programming
  • see how the web server is the entry point for web applications
  • whitelisting of input vs blacklisting and a method of preventing XSS
Creating a simple Webform and preparing a POST request.
Web Forms and HTTP Post Request
  • understand the basics of HTTP POST requests
  • become aware of security issues while transfering data to a web server
  • be able to create a simple web form in HTML
Handling a Post Request on a Web Server
Handling the Post Request in a Java servlet
  • See how a POST request is handled in a Java Servlet
  • get to know the Request object
  • see how a data base query and more advanced technology can be included to a servlet
Using Client side Java script to support Users filling out a web form
Client side JavaScript
  • understand how javascript was supposed to support people to fill out web forms
  • understand the issues and disadvantages that arise with javascript
Using server side application logic and client side ajax requests to support Users filling out a web form
Ajax and the XMLHttpRequest Class
  • be aware of JavaScript APIs
  • know some of the standard JavaScript libraries
  • be able to understand the concept of Ajax requests.
Lesson summary
Summary, Further readings, Homework
  • Web Content has a dynamic nature. This can happen on the client and on the server.
  • The web is an interactive medium. It can enable to make consumers of content also to become producers (Web 2.0)
  • The ratio of consumers to producers is like 90 to 10.
  • Be able to name some basic web technologies like javascript, and serverside programming tools and web servers.


The following video of the flipped classroom associated with this topic are available:

You can find more information on wiki commons and also directly download this file


outdated content[edit]

internet service provider[edit]

  • tier 1 to 3 providers
  • who owns the Internet?
  • who is putting a cable though the oceans?
  • what is peering?
  • who is actually paying for traffic?
  • how does the business model of ISPs work?

Summary: important concepts and milestones[edit]

  • definition of standards and protocols (e.g. OSI also if rather the Internet Model became standard)
  • interoperability
  • openness
  • decentralized algorithms (IP + routing protocols)
  • creation of RFCs
  • Compare the TCP/IP Model with the OSI Model consisting of 7 layers.