Topic:Comics Code Authority
Because of complaints that comics cause juveniles to act out badly, some major comic publishers came together and formed the Comics Code Authority in 1954 before the government could impose their own censorship. The CCA regulated content dealing with subjects such as violence, weapons, and sexual content. Before being published, a comic book needed the Comics Code Authority seal of approval.
Many minor comic book publishers went out of business when they did not replace their horror and suspense comics with topics that would get the seal.
Underground comix were released during the CCA era. The term underground comix refers to comics in the late 1960s that were not mainstream and dealt with iffy subjects. Because the comics were not mainstream and mostly sold in head shops, the companies did not have to deal with the Comics Code Authority.
- Irwin, William; Jane Dryden, Mark D. White (2011). Green Lantern and Philosophy: No Evil Shall Escape this Book. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 9781118003299. http://books.google.com/books?id=BoOtNZ4mCK4C&lpg=PT88&dq=1960s%20batman%20comics%20code%20authority&pg=PT88#v=onepage&q=1960s%20batman%20comics%20code%20authority&f=false. Retrieved December 11, 2011.
- Kakalios, James (2009). The Physics of Superheroes: Spectacular Second Edition. Penguin. ISBN 9781101152362. http://books.google.com/books?id=yYHbRJc-SZ8C&lpg=PT29&dq=comics%20code%20authority&pg=PT29#v=onepage&q=comics%20code%20authority&f=false. Retrieved December 11, 2011.
- Duncan, Randy; Matthew J. Smith (2009). The power of comics: history, form, and culture. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 57. ISBN 9780826429360. http://books.google.com/books?id=dTN54Zv0Ip4C&lpg=PA57&dq=how%20were%20underground%20comix%20sold&pg=PA56#v=onepage&q=how%20were%20underground%20comix%20sold&f=false. Retrieved December 11, 2011.