The major components of the Aircraft Structures can be broadly combined into:
The Wings provide the Lift to an Aircraft. The Wings are subjected to High Stress due to Aerodynamic Forces as well as the Weight of the Engines and reaction loads from Landing Gears. The tailpane of the WIng is the main contributor to Directional controls. Ailerons, Rudder and Elevators enable the maneuverability and provide stability, while in flight. The Wing Flaps provide the extra Lift during Take Off and Landing.
The fuselage is the body of the Airplane that carries the Crew and the Payload, the payload being passengers, cargo, fuel and weapons. It is subjected to very high Bending Loads from its own and the Payload's Weight. Fuselage structures can be of monocoque construction, where the skin resists all the stress, or of semi-monocoque construction where the skin is stiffened using stringers or longerons, which are members that run along the length of the Airplane. In most of the Fighter Aircrafts, the Fuselage also contains the Engine.
The term "Empennage" refers to the tail section or tail assembly of the airplane/aircraft that consists of the Horizontal Stabilizers and the Elevators,Vertical Stabilizer and a Rudder-that provides sufficient stability for the aircraft along the lateral and the vertical axis. The Rudder provides Directional Stability, whereas the Elevators provide Longitudinal Stability.