- 1 Introduction
- 2 Military History
- 3 Historic Figures
- 4 War Applications
- 5 Military Education
- 6 Personnel Development
- 6.1 Army
- 6.2 Navy
- 6.3 Marines
- 6.4 Coast Guard
- 6.5 Civilian
- 7 Forces
- 7.1 U.S. Armed Forces
- 7.1.1 Commands
- 7.1.2 Regulations
- 7.1.3 Military Law
- 7.1.4 Branch Specific
- 220.127.116.11 U.S. Marines
- 18.104.22.168 U.S. ARMY HISTORICAL SERIES : AMERICAN MILITARY HISTORY
- 22.214.171.124 U.S. Air Force
- 126.96.36.199 U.S. Navy
- 188.8.131.52 U.S. Coast Guard
- 184.108.40.206 Departments
- 7.2 Culture of War
- 7.1 U.S. Armed Forces
Military Studies can be described as the art and science of military applications. Throughout the ages, warfare has been all around us. Much of the world depends on warfare to advance both technologically and culturally. For example, without the development of the Manhattan Project, it may have taken much longer to utilize the practical energy uses of the atom for nuclear power.
Now, the military itself is a big part of what makes up this world of ours. So where do you start in something that can be approached in so many different ways? History, of course. The only way you can learn is by experience. History is nothing but experience--a few thousand years of it at least.
If you follow evolution, you know you shared a common ancestor with a monkey. If you're more religious, then you believe that we are God's divine creatures. Divine creature or monkey, ancient history covers that period of time as well as it can. The further back you go into history, the fewer records there are. Today, you will even have records on your shoe size. The records for back a few thousand years only give us hints of great wars and campaigns commanded by leaders such as Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar.
These men were both generals and kings of their respective empires, which they would have to have taken by force and luck. The armies they commanded demanded respect, extraordinary leadership, and--most of all--standing with their men right at the frontlines. There are many other generals and warlords that lived in Alexander's and Caesar's times, but these two great men risked their lives just like their soldiers. This is what separates leaders from great leaders.
Armies operated much the same from ancient times to even the 19th century in the American Civil War as large tight formations of moving blocks. Even if you applied modern tactics to ancient soldiers with swords and spears, they would have to be a guerilla force to be successful with what they had then. But these men would have to operate like North Vietnamese soldiers and not modern U.S. Special Forces. But this would have a bad effect on your reputation as a commander, and commanders in the day had to be honorable by ancient standards.
Commanders would have to be usually of a noble line or regarded as upper class to go through officer training to later lead armies. These commanders were plenty, but their valor was not. These commanders were mostly surrounded by veteran bodyguards far from the frontlines, but close enough to command the battle effectively. Battles would be long and fierce, and could be decided by simply looking at the number of forces alone. Sometimes this was not always true. While nations in general had average training and weapons, some like the Spartans or Romans would take training and weapons to a whole new level.
Spartan warriors were before the time of Roman supremacy. Even then, these Spartans could easily match Romans. Spartans lived and breath military training from almost the time of birth. This group of Spartans were only a city which was probably the most productive and efficient city in all the world. As a Spartan, you only did what was needed. You would never indulge except in physical and formation training. Spartan's were the Iron Men of all world history and would die in outnumbered battles such as in the battle of ((NEED RESEARCH ON MOUNTAIN BATTLE)) if it was a strategically reasonable. While the Romans operated differently then the Spartans, they would become the first world superpower we would see.
After the Allies had defeated Nazi Germany in 1945, two nations emerged out of the war as world superpowers - the United States of America (USA) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (the Soviet Union or the USSR).
By the end of World War 2, they had earned their place as the strongest countries in the world. But although they had been fighting the war as allies, there were many things which seperated them:
- Economic System - the USA had a capitalist economic system which basically means that the industry is owned by private individuals who can make and keep their profit independently. The Soviet Union had a socialist economic system which made all industry and land owned by the government and the wealth generated from them shared out equally for the population.
- Social System - the USA believed in freedom of speech (for example, criticizing the government) and personal belief and freedom of the press and that each citizen had their own right to excercise this and express it without getting shot or arrested. The Soviet Union believed in censorship of things undesirable and potentially dangerous to the government, and control of the media and citizens.
- Election Process - the USA believed in free, multi-party elections which allowed all types of parties no matter how far right or left they were, to be represented and allowed to be voted for in elections, and the party which won the majority of votes by the population would get into power. The Soviet Union only allowed one type of party in the election process.
So what was the problem?
They might have been fighting the war hand in hand, but when it was over and there was no common enemy to unite against, they soon fell out and bore a deep grudge against each other which lasted for the next 40 years or so and became known as the 'Cold War'.
East vs West: The Ultimate Love-Hate Relationship
The countries in the West never had a particularly good relationship with communism. It dates way back to 1917, when the Bolsheviks, a powerful and very popular hardline communist party back then took control of Russia in a coup. Russia, back then was a hundred years behind the West and was in a terrible position - there was a lack of food, all-time low living conditions, mass poverty and an expensive war that was draining away the limited money and resources. There were three main events that eventually led up to the Bolshevik take-over:
1) Revolution of 1905 - this wasn't really a revolution but it was a massive spasm of violence with no real political aim directed against the ruling monarchy at that time, but the government still manages to just cling on and ruthlessly suppress it
2) February Revoution of 1917 - this was what you'd call a revolution. There is again a massive rebellion against the government but this time it is a co-ordinated assault on government buildings by various anti-monarchist forces. In March, the government is deposed and a new provisional government is formed
3) October Revolution of 1917 - another assault on key buildings, but this time by Bolshevik communist forces under Lenin. The privisional government is eventually deposed and a new communist government is formed. Russia makes peace with Germany and withdraws from World War 1
But this comes as very bad news for the West. They have just lost a crucial ally in the war against Germany and it's allies, and having witnessed the bloody events in Russia they are absolutely terrified that it might happen to them, from their own socialist parties.
High School Programs
College & University
U.S. Service Academies
Numerous paths for service exist in each of the armed forces. In addition to active duty, there are reserve, national guard, state guard/defense force, auxiliary, civilian and contractor opportunities. Each has its own features and benefits, as well as its own advantages and disadvantages. A prospective service member may serve in several of these paths during his/her career.
Basic Combat Training, or BCT, is a nine-week training period that teaches identical skills for all MOSs (Military Occupational Specialties). This is because the Army believes that no matter the soldier's specialty, they should all be taught the basic skills of combat so they will be ready to properly defend themselves (as well as their fellow soldiers) when and if necessary.
BCT is divided into three phases, each phase lasting three weeks. The three phases are each represented by a color (red, white, and blue). BCT trainees are progressively allowed more responsibility, privileges, and independence each time they achieve a new phase of training. Whereas trainees in Phase I are constantly monitored and led around by their drill sergeants, Phase III trainees are largely responsible for making sure tasks are completed correctly and on-time, and keeping themselves on-schedule.
At some Basic Training stations, the current phase is denoted by the color of guidon carried by the platoon. Following the recruits' successful completion of the Field Training Exercise (a final exercise just before graduation), the Phase III blue guidon is sometimes traded for a tri-color red, white, and blue guidon that symbolizes successful completion of all three BCT phases.
Phase I During Phase I or "Red Phase", also called the "Patriot phase" recruits are subject to "Total Control", meaning their every action is monitored and constantly corrected by drill sergeants. As may be expected, recruits are often subjected to group "corrective action" for even minor infractions. The purpose being to develop an acute attention to detail as well as foster a sense of common responsibility among the unit.
Week 1 Week 1 begins with the recruits meeting the drill sergeants who will be responsible for their training throughout BCT. The drill sergeants pick up their recruits from Reception Battalion and either transport or march them to their company area. The company area is the common area for the entire company, and is surrounded by four barracks — one for each platoon in the company.
Upon arrival at the company area, recruits are subjected to exercises such as the "bag drill". This is a training exercise in which all the recruits' duffel bags are dumped into one large pile, and the recruits are told to find their personal duffel bags simultaneously, and within a set time limit. The exercise is designed so that the soldiers fail in their task and must keep trying again, until they realize that they must work together in order to complete the task within the time limit. Following the bag drill, the recruits are divided into platoons.
Drill & Ceremony training begins during week 1. This refers to correct procedures for marching, and body movements such as standing at attention, "facing" (right-face/left-face), "at ease," etc. For this and many other exercises, soldiers are sometimes issued fake rifles known as "rubber ducks", so that they can become familiar with the proper handling of their weapon before they have actually been trained to use it. More recently recruits have begun to be issued fully functional M16A2/A4s during the first week of BCT to allow for early familiarization with the weapon.
Classroom instructions are given in each of the seven "Army Core Values," which include loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity, and personal courage. Note that the initials spell out the mnemonic LDRSHIP (leadership). There are also classes held on subjects that involve day-to-day personal life in the Army, such as sexual harassment and race relations.
Week 2 During week 2, recruits begin unarmed combat training, also known as hand-to-hand combat, Combatives, or Ground Fighting Technique (GFT). The training often culminates in a competition where each platoon chooses one recruit to compete. At gender-integrated training stations, the platoons each choose one male and one female recruit.
Recruits are also instructed in map reading, land navigation, and compass use. These skills are put to the test at the Compass Course, where recruits are divided into groups and must navigate their way to a series of points throughout a wooded area.
Recruits will also tackle other physical challenges including Victory Tower and the Teamwork Development Course. Victory Tower is an exercise where recruits must navigate through several obstacles at extreme heights, including climbing and traversing rope ladders and bridges. They must then rappel down a 50-foot wall (back-first, with rope harness). In the Teamwork Development Course, squads must negotiate a series of obstacles, with emphasis on working as a team rather than as individuals.
First aid training is also given during this period. Recruits are trained in evaluating and properly treating casualties, ranging from the simple dressing of a wound to application of a tourniquet. Recruits are also trained in how to evaluate and treat heat casualties such as dehydration. Proper procedures for setting up and removing an IV are now being introduced, including closely supervised live practice on each other.
Week 3 Recruits begin training for bayonet use using pugil sticks and then move on to the Bayonet Assault Course. Other hands-on instruction sessions include person-carrying methods and physical problem-solving.
Recruits are also commonly sent to the "gas chamber" during this week, which is a large, sealed chamber where soldiers are subjected to CS gas while wearing their protective masks. The gas chamber is the culmination of a series of instructions on gas mask use. Recruits are forced to unmask just before exiting the chamber, so that they can briefly experience the effects of the gas. Drill sergeants will usually ask each recruit to recite information while they are unmasked, such as name, rank, social security number, the Pledge of Allegiance, the Soldiers' Creed, or the three Army general orders, so that the recruit is forced to open their mouth/eyes and/or take a breath. Recruits that answer incorrectly are sometimes sent for another trip through the gas chamber.
Week 3 is also when the recruits are introduced to their standard-issue weapon, the M16A2 assault rifle or the M4 carbine. This does not yet involve the actual firing of the rifle. It does include Basic Rifle Marksmanship (BRM) fundamentals training (instruction in marksmanship techniques without firing the rifle), as well as maintenance tasks, including "field stripping" (quickly disassembling) the rifle, cleaning it, and reassembling it correctly. With the focus toward Weapon Familiarization, many of these tasks (such as maintenance, and disassembly and reassembly) are now done during Week 1 as a part of the initial round of classroom instruction.
Phase II, called the "White Phase," or "Gunfighter Phase," is where soldiers begin actually firing weapons. With the M16A2 assault rifle, they will fire at various targets, which are progressively further and further downrange, resulting in more and more difficult shooting. Additionally, there are pop-up targets at long range. Other weapons the soldier becomes familiarized with include various grenades (such as the M67 fragmentation grenade) and grenade launchers (such as the M203 grenade launcher).
A soldier practices using his fixed bayonet, attached to a dummy rifle.The second week of Phase II involves familiarization with the bayonet, anti-tank/armor weaponry and other heavy weapons. There is also an obstacle course which the soldiers are expected to negotiate in a certain amount of time. This is also known as the confidence course since the main objective of running the course is to build self-confidence. There is also the expectation of working as a team with the assigned Battle Buddy.
Additionally, there is continual, intense physical training (PT), as well as drill and ceremony training. At the conclusion of Phase II, soldiers are expected to demonstrate proficiency with the various weaponry in which they trained, using numerous "go or no-go" (pass/fail) exercises, prior to being allowed to move on to Phase III.
Phase III, the "Blue Phase" or "Warrior Phase" is the culmination and the most challenging of all the training phases. During this phase, there is a PT final. At some locations, soldiers that fail are not allowed to go into the field with the rest of the platoon. The Final PT Test consists of the Standard Army Annual PT Examination. A minimum of 150 points is required to pass US Army Basic Training. Those that pass will move on to "Bivouac" (camping) and FTX (Field Training Exercises), such as nighttime combat operations and MOUT training. There is no access to the dining facility during these exercises, so meals are given in the form of either MREs (Meal Ready to Eat) or "hot alphas". Drill sergeants will make much of this an adversarial process, working against the recruits in many of the night operations, trying to foil plans, etc. Other BCT companies also in their FTX weeks may join in simulated combat scenarios, generally at night, with intense competition to prove their particular company the better trained.
Week 2 of Phase III (the 8th week of Basic Training) culminates in a special tactical FTX (Field Training Exercise), during which the drill sergeants will advise, but allow recruit platoon leaders and squad leaders to exercise primary decision-making. They attempt to make virtually every one of these exercises different. Due to the fact that being a soldier is potentially an extremely hazardous job, recruits must demonstrate extreme aggression and fearlessness, tempered by intelligence and common sense. Only those that demonstrate these vital attributes will be permitted to move on to AIT.
Following their FTX, recruits then move into the final week of training, often called "recovery week". At this time, soldiers must service and/or repair any items they are not taking on to AIT including weapons, bedding, issued equipment (helmet, canteen, gas mask, etc.) as well as ensuring the platoon barracks is in good order to receive the next platoon of trainees. This week also includes a final fitting of the recruit's dress uniform as well as practice for the graduation ceremony which takes place at the end of the week.
Advanced Individual Training, or AIT, is where new soldiers receive specific training in their chosen MOS. The length of AIT training varies depending on the MOS and can last anywhere from three weeks to nearly two years. The current longest AIT training lasts 84 weeks (1 year and 8 months).
Just like BCT, AIT progressively allows trainees more and more privileges. At the start of AIT, trainees are in Phase IV. After a varying length of time and satisfactory performance, the trainees are awarded Phase V. Phase V often includes the privilege of applying for off-post passes or use of a cell phone. Phase V+ is awarded after a similar length of time and continued good conduct. Phase V+ trainees may walk about the base without having a battle buddy present, be able to drink alcohol on weekends (provided one is of legal drinking age), and even stay off-post overnight on weekends. These privileges vary, however.
AIT schools Army AIT schools include (not a complete list):
Adjutant General School, located at Fort Jackson, SC. Air Defense Artillery School, located at Fort Bliss, TX. Armor School, located at Fort Knox, KY. Army Aviation Center, located at Fort Rucker, AL. Aviation Logistics School, located at Fort Eustis, VA. Chaplain Center and School, located at Fort Jackson, SC. Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear School, located at Fort Leonard Wood, MO. Engineer School, located at Fort Leonard Wood, MO. Field Artillery Center, located at Fort Sill, OK. Finance Corps School, located at Fort Jackson, SC. Infantry School, located at Fort Benning, GA.
Intelligence Center, located at Fort Huachuca, AZ.
Medical Department Center and Schools, located at Fort Sam Houston, TX. Military Police School, located at Fort Leonard Wood, MO. Ordnance Mechanical Maintenance School, located at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. Ordnance Munitions and Electronics Maintenance School, located at Redstone Arsenal, AL. Quartermaster School, located at Fort Lee, VA. Signal School, located at Fort Gordon, GA. United States Army Signals Intelligence Analysts School, located at Goodfellow Air Force Base, TX. Transportation School, located at Fort Eustis, VA.
The United States Coast Guard is one of the five armed military forces. At various times under the Commerce Department and the Transportation Department, it currently serves as part of the US Department of Homeland Security. Like the other armed services, it contains enlisted and officer personnel, auxiliarists and civilian employees. Rank structure is similar to the US Navy for enlisted and officer servicemembers.
Active Duty Augmentation
U.S. Armed Forces
Order of Battle
U.S. ARMY HISTORICAL SERIES : AMERICAN MILITARY HISTORY
World War I
World War II
- CMH Pub. 100-7: SALERNO : American Operations From the Beaches to the Volturno, 9 September - 6 October 1943
- CMH Pub. 100-8: FROM THE VOLTURNO TO THE WINTER LINE, 6 October - 15 November 1943
- CMH Pub. 100-9: FIFTH ARMY AT THE WINTER LINE, 15 November 1943 - 15 January 1944
- CMH Pub. 100-10: ANZIO BEACHHEAD, 22 JANUARY - 25 MAY 1944
- CMH Pub. 100-11: OMAHA BEACHHEAD, 6 June-13 June 1944
- CMH Pub. 100-12: UTAH BEACH TO CHERBOURG, 6 June-27 June 1944
- CMH Pub. 100-13: ST-LO, 7 July - 19 July 1944
North African/Middle East Theater
- CMH Pub. 100-1: PAPUAN CAMPAIGN : The Buna-Sanananda Operation, 16 November 1942 - 23 January 1943
- CMH Pub. 100-2: THE CAPTURE OF MAKIN : 20 - 24 November 1943
- CMH Pub. 100-3: THE ADMIRALTIES : Operations of the 1st Cavalry Division, 29 February - 18 May 1944
- CMH Pub. 100-4: MERRILL'S MARAUDERS : February - May 1944
- CMH Pub. 100-5: GUAM : Operations of the 77th Division, 21 July - 10 August 1944