PD Neuroprotection/Exendin-4 (EX-4)
This product (Exenatide) has the merit of being already approved for human use in the treatment of diabetes.
Exendin-4 (Ex-4), is the first of this new class of antihyperglycemia drugs approved to treat Type 2 diabetes.
Harkavyi et al  showed that EX-4 reversed the loss of extracellular DA in the striata of toxin lesioned freely moving rats.
This suggests that pharmacological manipulation of the GLP-1 receptor system could have substantial therapeutic utility in PD. Critically, in contrast to other peptide agents that have been demonstrated to possess neuroprotective properties in pre-clinical models of PD, EX-4 is in current clinical use in the management of type-II diabetes and freely crosses the blood brain barrier; hence, assessment of the clinical efficacy of EX-4 in patients with PD could be pursued without delay.
Li et al  found that Ex-4 treatment protected dopaminergic neurons against degeneration, preserved dopamine levels, and improved motor function in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD).
Our findings demonstrate that Ex-4 can protect neurons against metabolic and oxidative insults, and they provide preclinical support for the therapeutic potential for Ex-4 in the treatment of stroke and PD.
Further Reading 
Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Exendin-4.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
Related pages 
- Substances with possible neuroprotective properties:
- Caffeine,--Celastrol,--Co-Enzyme Q10,--Creatine,--DHA,--Exendin-4 (EX-4),--GDNF,--Glutathione (GSH),--GM1,--Isradipine,--Melatonin,--Minocycline,--Nicotine,--NSAIDs,--Phenylbutyrate,--Phytic Acid,--Probucol,--Quinoxaline,--Rasagiline,--Riboflavin,--Statins,--Tolcapone,--Urate & Uric Acid,--Vitamin D,--Vitamin E,--
- Harkavyi, A.; Abuirmeileh, A.; Lever, R.; Kingsbury, A. E.; Biggs, C. S. and Whitton, P. S. (2008) Abstract J. Neuroinflammation. 5:19. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor stimulation reverses key deficits in distinct rodent models of Parkinson's disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18492290
- Li, Y.; Perry, T.; Kindy, M. S.; Harvey, B, K.; Tweedie, D.; Holloway, H. W.; Powers, K.; Shen, H.; Egan, J. M.; Sambamurti, K.; Brossi, A.; Lahiri, D. K.; Mattson, M. P.; Hoffer, B. J.; Wang, Y. and Greig N. H.(2009)Abstract Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. 106 (4):1285 - 1290. GLP-1 receptor stimulation preserves primary cortical and dopaminergic neurons in cellular and rodent models of stroke and Parkinsonism. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19164583