Monopoles - physical particles with gradient fields, that potentially could be associated with elementary particles (such as electric monopole or magnetic monopole).
Monopoles could be formed from the following fundamental physical charges and masses.
Electric charge quantum, first proposed by G.Stoney (1881):
Magnetic charge quantum, first proposed by Paul Dirac (1931):
where is the Planck constant. Gravitational mass (or electric-like) quantum is the electron mass:
Gravitational magnetic-like quantum, or velocity circulation quantum, presented in the superfluid and inversion layers of MOSFETs, first discovered by Yakymakha (1994):
Forming electron mass
Let us consider an interaction between two physical values: electric static charge () and gravitational dynamic mass ():
where F/m is the electric constant, and m/kg is the gravitational magnetic-like constant. The work done by this interaction could be equated to the s.c. electron rest energy:
where m/s is the velocity of light. The interaction radius could be derived from above equation in the form:
is the Stoney scale gradient force constant;
is the Natural scale rotor force constant;
- m is the Stoney length, and
is considered. Note that,
Forming magnetic monopole mass
Let us consider an interaction between two physical values: magnetic static charge () and gravitational static mass ():
where is the gravitational electric-like constant, and is the magnetic constant. The work done by this interaction could be equated to the s.c. planckion rest energy:
where is the Planck mass. The interaction radius could be derived from above equation in the form:
Electric monopole properties
We considered above only one mixed force, which formed the ‘’rest mass’’ of electric monopole. Now we can consider the next three forces. The most weak force is due to the gravitational interaction of the rest masses:
As usual, this force is neglected. The Coulomb force is more stronger:
This force take part in the atomic and other more complex particles formation. But the most power force is connected with magnetic-like (or dynamic) mass interaction:
This force could be responsible for the spin interactions.
Classical radius of the electric monopole:
where is the Natural scale length.
Magnetic monopole properties
We considered above only one mixed force, which formed the ‘’rest mass’’ of magnetic monopole. Now we can consider the next three forces. The most weak force is due to the gravitational interaction of the masses:
As usual, this force is neglected. The gravitational force of the Planck mass interaction is more stronger:
where is the force constant of the Planck scale. This force could be associated with the s.c. “strong interactions”.
The most powerful force considers the magnetic charge (or dynamic charge) interaction:
This force forms the main property of the magnetic monopole. Strange to say, but it is seems that magnetic monopoles have no any spin, since there are no any force responsible for such interaction. Thus, magnetic monopoles could not form any complex particles, “magnetic atoms”, for example.
Classical radius of the magnetic monopole:
Note that it about 2.5 times greater then the Stoney scale length.
Thus, in the both cases interactions between "static" and "dynamic" masses and charges lead to the half value of the Stoney length:
where is the Stoney length. So, the electron rest mass could be considered as some "energy gap" for the electric monopole, and the planckion rest mass - for magnetic monopole.
- Stoney G. On The Physical Units of Nature, Phil.Mag. 11, 381–391, 1881
- Latest (2006) values of the constants 
- Paul Dirac, "Quantised Singularities in the Electromagnetic Field". Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A 133, 60 (1931). Free web link
- Putterman S.J. (1974). Superfluid hydrodynamics. North-Holland, Amsterdam.
- Yakymakha O.L., Kalnibolotskij Y.M. (1994). "Very-low-frequency resonance of MOSFET amplifier parameters". Solid- State Electronics 37(10),1739-1751 Pdf