Metaphysics

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Metaphysics Study whose object is to determine the real nature of things, meaning structure & principal

Nature & scope of metaphysics[edit]

Origin of the term What comes after physics? Appearances & realities for Plato Objects of opinions = appearance. Objects of knowledge = noumena (intelligence) Characterization of metaphysics An inquiry into what exists Unreliability of common opinion Are dreams real? What are numbers? Ultimate stuff of universe Rivalry with scientists. Science of ultimate reality Components in metaphysics conception of reality Reality genuine as opposed to deceptive. It is original in contrast to derivative. Reality is intelligible. Task of metaphysician Science of world as a whole Metaphysics as an account of world Science of first principles First principles as basic truths Metaphysicians as self critical Metaphysics & other branch of philosophy View of metaphysics as queen of sciences Metaphysics & analysis Analysis in philosophy Historical use of analysis by metaphysicians

Problems in metaphysics[edit]

Existence of forms, categories & particulars Forms Platonic theory What is there is really idea. Successor to Pythagorean theory of number Categories & universals Aristotelian doctrine =of 8 to 10 categories, being is spoken in many ways, classification Predicates = substances. Qualities, relation, quantities & time Problem of universals Basic particulars Hume's theory of particulars Impressions or ideas Russell's theory Existence of god Proof of existence of god That than which nothing greater can be conceived. Criticisms of proof Being is not real predicate (imply). Soul mind & body Soul mind body relationship Platonic & Aristotelians theory of soul Old school Mind body relationship New school. Cartesian theory Difference between mental & material substance. Theory of Spinoza God or nature Modern theory I that think am different from I that weigh 60 Kgs. Problem of differentiating man & machine Cybernetics = what differentiates man from machines Nature & external world Existence of material is subject of epistemology, in empiricist traditions. Reality of material things External world as defective in reality It is merely a phenomenon Primary & secondary qualities of material things Organizing principles of nature Nature as mechanical or teleological Hidden purpose? Space & time Can it be real? Theory of Kant & Bradley Concept in individual mind. Theory of Bergson Time is continuous. Parts only for public convenience. Conception of spirit Mind is key to understanding universe. Hegel Subjective idealism. Reality in terms of experience of individual minds. All reality as spirit

Types of metaphysics theory[edit]

Platonism Distinction between world of appearance & reality Aristotelians Making sense of here & now Thomasism Christian metaphysics Cartesianism Increased understanding of physical world Kantian development Idealism Two solutions to Cartesian dualism Materialism Matter as only substantial existent Naturalism

Arguments assertion & methods in metaphysics[edit]

Metaphysics as a science Nature of an priory science Where propositions taken as true & logically proved as such. Hypothetical nature of a priory sciences Metaphysics as an priory science Deductive systems of Spinoza & Descartes 8 definitions, 7 axioms = 36 propositions in ethics. Metaphysics as an empirical science Reference to experience Initial metaphysical insights Origin Metaphysics as matter of vision Tests of validity Insight as limited in number & subject to experience Test of self-consistency of theory Role of personal or social factors Metaphysics arguments Logical character of metaphysics statements Classes of metaphysics statements About what exists, prescription how to understand what exists. Logical form of metaphysics argument Deductive & inductive arguments Mostly deducted from reason. Transcendental arguments

Criticism of metaphysics[edit]

To know reality = dreaming, duping or charlatan Metaphysics as study of occult

Metaphysics as knowledge of super sensible Specific criticism Hume Necessity of sense experience Kant Critical philosophy reflection Differences between Hume & Kant criticism Logical positivists Verification principle Moore & Wittgenstein Common sense criticism Language criticism Religious philosophers

Tendencies in contemporary metaphysics.[edit]

Background. Thought of Kant & Hegel In USA John Dewey William James Location of role of science in knowledge In Europe Edmund Husserl & phenomenology Reflection on pre reflective life

Existentialists Ontology of dasein Thought of whitehead Organismic unites