Mehmed II (Fatih) and the rise of the Ottoman Empire
- Mehmed II wanted to capture Constantinople, because the Byzantine Empire was a potential threat. The Ottomans then prepare for siege. In April 1453, they attacked Constantinople with over 100,000 - 150,000 soldiers. The Byzantine Empire on the other hand had over 7 - 10,000 soldiers. Republic of Venice and other European countries supported Constantinople.
- Ottomans attacked Constantinople constantly, but could not get the results because European countries sent reinforcements constantly. In May, a lot of Ottoman soldiers died. The Byzantine empire defended successfully. Ottomans wanted to enter Golden Horn. Because, the Byzantine walls were too weak there. But, there was a thick chain in entry of Golden Horn so, Ottomans ships could not enter Golden Horn. Mehmed II ordered about this problem. Ottomans ships passed on the Kasımpaşa. Thus, Ottomans entered Golden Horn! This order was incredible! And a lot of Ottoman ships passed on Kasımpaşa (which is the shore of Golden Horn) by pulling all ships over Kasımpaşa by ropes by Ottoman's soldiers . Ottoman ships entered Golden Horn and attacked Byzantine ships. A lot of Byzantine ships sunk. Constantinople became too weak, after this attack. Thus, few days later, Ottomans captured Constantinople and Byzantine empire fell. Mehmed II made it capital city of Ottoman empire. New mosques, hospitals, schools, buildings and a university (Istanbul University) were founded here.
- After fall of Constantinople, Serbs gave some castles to the Ottomans. A few years later, Ottomans attacked Serbs in 1454 - 1457. Ottomans captured a lot of Serb castles. Also Ottomans attacked Peloponnese and Ottomans captured there in 1460. Ottomans attacked Balkans constantly. Ottomans captured Empire of Trebizond in 1461 and last Rûm country fell. Two years later, Ottomans captured Bosnia. Some years later, in the east, Beylik of Karaman and Beylik of Ak Koyunlu formed allience against Ottomans. So, Ottomans attacked Eastern Anatolia Region in 1466 and captured Konya Province. But, same year Beylik of Karaman captured there. Because of this attacking, Ottomans attacked there. Beylik of Ak Koyunlu fell in 1473, a year later Beylik of Karaman fell.
- In 1477, the Crimean Khanate became a state of Ottoman. Ottomans also captured all the Black Sea ports, coasts, and cities. Thus, the Black Sea became a Turk sea.
- In 1481, Mehmed II died. He still wanted to attack new places before died. When he died, European people were said to be very happy and bells rang for days in Europe. During his term, Balkans, Peloponnese, Crimean Khanate, Anatolia, Caucasus, North Syria and North Iraq became parts of Ottoman and the Ottoman Empire became very strong. After death of Mehmed II, his son Bayezid II became emperor of Ottoman empire.