Medicine

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A female doctor examines a child. Credit: United States Government.

"Medicine is the science and "art" of maintaining and/or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients."[1]

Medical school[edit]

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Theory of medicine[edit]

Def. "[t]he study of the cause, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of disease or illness"[2] is called medicine.

Medical disclaimer[edit]

Medical disclaimer: This page is for educational and informational purposes only and may not be construed as medical advice. The information is not intended to replace medical advice offered by physicians. Please refer to the full text of the Wikiversity medical disclaimer.

Remedy[edit]

Def. "[a] medicine, application, or treatment that relieves or cures a disease"[3] is called a remedy.

Cures[edit]

Def.

  1. a "method, device or medication that restores good health"[4] or an
  2. act "of healing or state of being healed; restoration to health from disease, or to soundness after injury"[4]

is called a cure.

Health[edit]

Def.

  1. the "state of being free from physical or psychological disease, illness, or malfunction; wellness"[5] or
  2. a "state of well-being or balance, often physical but sometimes also mental and social; the overall level of function of an organism from the cellular (micro) level to the social (macro) level"[5]

is called health.

Genomic expression[edit]

The health of an individual may be a direct product of successful, ongoing genomic expression. Such expression if free from physical or psychological disease, illness, or malfunction may constitute wellness.

Some individuals possess genetic mutations that may at onset produce symptoms indicating a variation from wellness even though these expressions are successful. That same individual in turn may possess expressions that minimize any harmful effects from these mutations or their successful expression.

Legal restrictions[edit]

Painted by Toulouse-Lautrec in the year of his own death is an examination in the Paris faculty of medicine, 1901.

"Since the 19th century, only those with a medical degree have been considered worthy to practice medicine. Clinicians (licensed professionals who deal with patients) can be physicians, physical therapists, physician assistants, nurses or others. The medical profession is the social and occupational structure of the group of people formally trained and authorized to apply medical knowledge. Many countries and legal jurisdictions have legal limitations on who may practice medicine."[6]

"In most countries, it is a legal requirement for medical doctors to be licensed or registered. In general, this entails a medical degree from a university and accreditation by a medical board or an equivalent national organization, which may ask the applicant to pass exams. This restricts the considerable legal authority of the medical profession to physicians that are trained and qualified by national standards."[7]

"It can also act as a form of economic rent which might help to drive up the cost of medical care, in countries where that may be a factor."[8]

"It is also intended as an assurance to patients and as a safeguard against charlatans that practice inadequate medicine for personal gain. While the laws generally require medical doctors to be trained in "evidence based", Western, or Hippocratic Medicine, they are not intended to discourage different paradigms of health."[7]

"In the European Union, the profession of doctor of medicine is regulated. A profession is said to be regulated when access and exercise is subject to the possession of a specific professional qualification. The regulated professions database contains a list of regulated professions for doctor of medicine in the EU member states, EEA countries and Switzerland. This list is covered by the Directive 2005/36/EC."[7]

Practices[edit]

This is a painting by Samuel Luke Fildes of a doctor studying a patient. Credit: Samuel Luke Fildes, 1891.

The current "practice of medicine occurs at the many interfaces between the art of healing and various sciences. Medicine is directly connected to the health sciences and biomedicine. Broadly speaking, the term 'Medicine' today refers to the fields of clinical medicine, medical research and surgery, thereby covering the challenges of disease and injury."[6]

Malpractices[edit]

"Doctors who are negligent or intentionally harmful in their care of patients can face charges of medical malpractice and be subject to civil, criminal, or professional sanctions."[7]

Research[edit]

Hypothesis:

  1. A control group is needed to evaluate physicians.

Control groups[edit]

This is an image of a Lewis rat. Credit: Charles River Laboratories.

The findings demonstrate a statistically systematic change from the status quo or the control group.

“In the design of experiments, treatments [or special properties or characteristics] are applied to [or observed in] experimental units in the treatment group(s).[9] In comparative experiments, members of the complementary group, the control group, receive either no treatment or a standard treatment.[10]"[11]

Proof of concept[edit]

Def. a “short and/or incomplete realization of a certain method or idea to demonstrate its feasibility"[12] is called a proof of concept.

Def. evidence that demonstrates that a concept is possible is called proof of concept.

The proof-of-concept structure consists of

  1. background,
  2. procedures,
  3. findings, and
  4. interpretation.[13]

Proof of technology[edit]

"[T]he objective of a proof of technology is to determine the solution to some technical problem, such as how two systems might be integrated or that a certain throughput can be achieved with a given configuration."[14]

Def.

  1. "[a]n original object or form which is a basis for other objects, forms, or for its models and generalizations",[15]
  2. "[a]n early sample or model built to test a concept or process",[15] or
  3. "[a]n instance of a category or a concept that combines its most representative attributes"[15] is called a prototype.

Def. "[t]o test something using the conditions that it was designed to operate under, especially out in the real world instead of in a laboratory or workshop"[16] is called "field-test", or a field test.

A "proof-of-technology prototype ... typically implements one critical scenario to exercise or stress the highest-priority requirements."[17]

"[A] proof-of-technology test demonstrates the system can be used"[18].

"The strongest proof of technology performance is based on consistency among multiple lines of evidence, all pointing to similar levels of risk reduction."[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Jfdwolff (August 9, 2012). "Medicine, In: Wiki Doc". Boston, Massachusetts: WikiDoc Foundation. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  2. "medicine, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 13, 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-18. 
  3. "remedy, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 14, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "cure, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 3, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-04. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "health, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 3, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-04. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Medicine, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. September 23, 2007. Retrieved 2013-09-20. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "Medicine, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. September 19, 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-20. 
  8. Edital (September 23, 2007). "Medicine, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2013-09-20. 
  9. Klaus Hinkelmann, Oscar Kempthorne (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (2nd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-72756-9. http://books.google.com/?id=T3wWj2kVYZgC&printsec=frontcover. 
  10. R. A. Bailey (2008). Design of comparative experiments. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68357-9. http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521683579. 
  11. "Treatment and control groups, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-31. 
  12. "proof of concept, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 10, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  13. Ginger Lehrman and Ian B Hogue, Sarah Palmer, Cheryl Jennings, Celsa A Spina, Ann Wiegand, Alan L Landay, Robert W Coombs, Douglas D Richman, John W Mellors, John M Coffin, Ronald J Bosch, David M Margolis (August 13, 2005). "Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study". Lancet 366 (9485): 549-55. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67098-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1894952/. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  14. "Proof of concept, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. December 27, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 "prototype, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. December 8, 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
  16. "field-test, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. August 5, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  17. A. Liu; I. Gorton (March/April 2003). "Accelerating COTS middleware acquisition: the i-Mate process". Software, IEEE 20 (2): 72-9. doi:10.1109/MS.2003.1184171. http://cin.ufpe.br/~redis/intranet/bibliography/middleware/liu-cots03.pdf. Retrieved 2012-02-15. 
  18. Rhea Wessel (January 25, 2008). "Cargo-Tracking System Combines RFID, Sensors, GSM and Satellite". RFID Journal: 1-2. http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/pdf/3870/1/1/rfidjournal-article3870.PDF. Retrieved 2012-02-15. 
  19. P. Suresh, C. Rao, M.D. Annable and J.W. Jawitz (August 2000). E. Timothy Oppelt. ed. [http://www.afcee.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-071003-081.pdf#page=108 In Situ Flushing for Enhanced NAPL Site Remediation: Metrics for Performance Assessment, In: Abiotic In Situ Technologies for Groundwater Remediation Conference]. Cincinnati, Ohio: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. pp. 105. http://www.afcee.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-071003-081.pdf#page=108. Retrieved 2012-02-15. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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