“Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context.”
“Although linguistics is the scientific study of language, a number of other intellectual disciplines are relevant to language and intersect with it. Semiotics, for example, is the general study of signs and symbols both within language and without. Literary theorists study the use of language in literature. Linguistics additionally draws on and informs work from such diverse fields as acoustics, anthropology, biology, computer science, human anatomy, informatics, neuroscience, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and speech-language pathology.”
Notation: let the symbol Def. indicate that a definition is following.
Notation: let the symbols between [ and ] be replacement for that portion of a quoted text.
To help with definitions, their meanings and intents, there is the learning resource theory of definition.
Def. evidence that demonstrates that a concept is possible is called proof of concept.
The proof-of-concept structure consists of
- findings, and
The findings demonstrate a statistically systematic change from the status quo or the control group.
“Linguistics concerns itself with describing and explaining the nature of human language. Fundamental questions include what is universal to language, how language can vary, and how human beings come to know languages. Linguistic fields can then be broadly divided into those that distinguish themselves by a focus on linguistic structure and grammar, and those that distinguish themselves by the nonlinguistic factors they consider.”
“Before the 20th century, the term philology, first attested in 1716, was commonly used to refer to the science of language, which was then predominantly historical in focus. Since Ferdinand de Saussure's insistence on the importance of synchronic analysis, however, this focus has shifted and the term "philology" is now generally used for the "study of a language's grammar, history, and literary tradition", especially in the United States, where it was never as popular as it was elsewhere (in the sense of the "science of language").”
"The approximately 3,000–6,000 languages that are spoken by humans today are the most salient examples, but natural languages can also be based on visual rather than auditory stimuli, for example in sign languages and written language. Codes and other kinds of artificially constructed communication systems such as those used for computer programming can also be called languages. A language in this sense is a system of signs for encoding and decoding information."
Def. "[t]he part of linguistics that studies words, their nature and meaning, words' elements, relations between words including semantic relations, words groups and the whole lexicon" is called lexicology.
- "[t]he art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries [or]
- [t]he scholarly discipline of analyzing and describing the semantic, syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships within the lexicon (vocabulary) of a language and developing theories of dictionary components and structures linking the data in dictionaries"
is called lexicography.
- "[a] system of rules and principles for speaking and writing a language
- [t]he study of the internal structure of words (morphology) and the use of words in the construction of phrases and sentences (syntax)
- [a] book describing the rules of grammar of a language
- [a] formal system [in computing theory] specifying the syntax of a language
- [a] formal system [in computing theory] defining a formal language
- [t]he basic rules or principles of a field of knowledge or a particular skill"
is called a grammar.
- 1. "the study of meanings:"
- 1.a: "the historical and psychological study and the classification of changes in the signification of words or forms viewed as factors in linguistic development",
- 1.b: "a branch of semiotic dealing with the relations between signs and what they refer to and including theories of denotation, extension, naming, and truth"
- 2.a: "the meaning or relationship of meanings of a sign or set of signs; [especially]: connotative meaning"
- 2.b: "the exploitation of connotation and ambiguity (as in propaganda)"
Def. "the branch of linguistics devoted to the investigation of linguistic meaning, the interpretation of expression in a language system." is called semantics.
See also 
- . ISBN 0-262-51370-6.
- André Martinet, Tr. Elisabeth Palmer (Studies in General Linguistics, vol. i.) (1960). Elements of General Linguistics. London: Faber. p. 15.
- Michael A. K. Halliday, Jonathan Webster (2006). On Language and Linguistics. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. vii. ISBN 0-8264-8824-2.
- Joseph Greenberg (1948). "Linguistics and ethnology". Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 4: 140–7.
- (June 18, 2012) "Linguistics". Wikipedia. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 2012-06-19.
- Ginger Lehrman and Ian B Hogue, Sarah Palmer, Cheryl Jennings, Celsa A Spina, Ann Wiegand, Alan L Landay, Robert W Coombs, Douglas D Richman, John W Mellors, John M Coffin, Ronald J Bosch, David M Margolis (August 13, 2005). "Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study". Lancet 366 (9485): 549-55. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67098-5. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
- Online Etymological Dictionary: philology
- McMahon, A. M. S. (1994). Understanding Language Change. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44665-1.
- A. Morpurgo Davies Hist. Linguistics (1998) 4 I. 22.
- Online Etymological Dictionary: linguist
- Philology. Books.google.com. 2008-02-09. http://books.google.com/books?id=2joVAAAAYAAJ&dq=philology&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=REA2bM6Pf_&sig=Ws1UMX0ld3eeYXO2IxcBXD4WhNs&hl=en&ei=VJowSqeaCYTAMtiD_ccH&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9#PPA5,M1. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
- (June 17, 2012) "Philology". Wikipedia. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 2012-06-19.
- (June 20, 2012) "Language". Wikipedia. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 2012-06-19.
- (May 29, 2012) "lexicology". Wiktionary. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 2012-06-19.
- (June 21, 2012) "lexicography". Wiktionary. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 2012-06-19.
- (March 31, 2012) "grammar". Wikipedia. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 2012-06-19.
- Philip B. Gove, ed (1963). Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusetts: G. & C. Merriam Company. pp. 1221.
- Gennaro Chierchia, Sally McConnell-Ginet (2000). Word Meaning, In: Meaning and Grammar: An Introduction to Semantics. Boston: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. pp. 431-500. ISBN 0-262-03269-4. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=pxJGet3pKdoC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=meaning+semantics&ots=2PQLncgzKw&sig=tppbFnpu5gM-JQvIqprBonP61WE#v=onepage&q=meaning%20semantics&f=false. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
Further reading 
- African Journals Online
- Bing Advanced search
- GenomeNet KEGG database
- Google Books
- Google scholar Advanced Scholar Search
- Home - Gene - NCBI
- International Astronomical Union
- Lycos search
- NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database - NED
- NASA's National Space Science Data Center
- NCBI All Databases Search
- NCBI Site Search
- Office of Scientific & Technical Information
- PubChem Public Chemical Database
- Questia - The Online Library of Books and Journals
- SAGE journals online
- The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System
- Scirus for scientific information only advanced search
- SDSS Quick Look tool: SkyServer
- SIMBAD Astronomical Database
- SIMBAD Web interface, Harvard alternate
- Spacecraft Query at NASA.
- Taylor & Francis Online
- Universal coordinate converter
- WikiDoc The Living Textbook of Medicine
- Wiley Online Library Advanced Search
- Yahoo Advanced Web Search
Learn more about Linguistics