This page is a lesson on Bokmål, the more commonly spoken of the two forms of norwegian. This page covers basic use of pronouns and conjugation of verbs in the present, the use of modal auxiliaries, and how to hold a basic conversation.
|Sven||Hallo, Hva heter du?||Hello, what is your name?|
|Kari||Hallo, Jeg heter Kari, og du?||Hello, my name is Kari. And you ?|
|Sven||Jeg heter Sven.||My name is Sven.|
|Kari||Hvordan har du det?||How are you?|
|Sven||Jeg har det bra, hva med deg?||I am well, what about you?|
|Kari||Det går bra.||It's going well.|
|Sven||Bra, jeg må dra nå!||Good,I must go now!|
|Kari||OK, ha det bra!||OK, good bye!|
Personal Pronouns are as follows for their English equivalents.
|2nd person plural||Dere|
Nouns describe a person, place, or thing.
In the norwegian language there are three genders for nouns, masculine, feminine, and neuter. The indefinite singular (unconjugated) forms of the nouns are represented similarly the way they are represented in english.
- En stol. Masculine, a chair.
- Ei jente. Feminine, a girl.
- Et bilde. Neuter, a picture.
Cases for each verb differs, but they follow the same rules.
- Indefinite singular: Article before the noun.
- Definite singular: Article is attached to the end of the noun.
- Indefinite plural: A modified form of the article(see below) is attached to the end of the noun.
- Definite plural: The suffix -ene is attached to the end of the noun.
Below is a table of the different noun cases in norwegian, with the english equivalents in parentheses.
|Indefinite Singular||En Stol (A Chair)||Ei Jente (A Girl)||Et Bilde (A Picture)|
|Definite Singular||Stolen (The Chair)||Jenta (The Girl)||Bildet (The Picture)|
|Indefinite Plural||Stoler (Chairs)||Jenter (Girls)||Bilder (Pictures)|
|Definite Plural||Stolene (The Chairs)||Jentene (The Girls)||Bildene (The Pictures)|
Depending on the speaker, the feminine article will be ommited and replaced with the masculine pronoun. For example in the definite singular case, one might say jenten in place of jenta.
In the case of a neuter noun in which the noun itself has only one syllable, for instance 'house'; et hus. The indefinite plural is simply drops the article. Houses would be 'hus', planes (et fly) would become 'fly', and so forth.
The infinitive form of verbs will typically follow this form (å)+(verb)+(letter e) å is one of the many ways to say 'to' in norwegian for example: the infinitive of the verb, 'to play' is 'å spille' The e is simply a platform for conjugation.
Simple conjugation in the present tense does not change for the pronoun it is used in conjunction with. The strong and weak verbs which will be covered in lesson are conjugated the same way for the present tense. Conjugation for the present tense is adding the letter -r to the word and dropping the å at the beginning of the infinitive.
|I play.||Jeg spiller.|
|You play.||Du spiller.|
|He plays.||Han spiller.|
|She plays.||Hun spiller.|
|It plays.||Det spiller.|
|We play.||Vi spiller.|
|You(plural) play.||Dere spiller.|
|They play.||De spiller.|
As in nearly all languages there are irregular verbs, verbs that are conjugated differently from the rest of the verbs in the language. Some of the more common ones in Norwegian are.
- Å Være, to be
- Å Vite, to know
- Å Gjøre, to do
Their present tense forms are as follows
|I am.||Jeg er.|
|I know.||Jeg vet.|
|I do.||Jeg gjør.|
Modal auxiliaries, or modal verbs, are words that appear before verbs in order to change the mood of necessity or probability. Some common examples in english include; can, shall, will, must, and may. The sentence structure of these is also similar to the english equivalent. Jeg kan spise mat. I can eat food. The sentence is formed by the subject, the modal verb, the infinitive form of the verb dropping the -å stem, and then the object. Negation is achieved by adding ikke directly after the modal verb. For example: Jeg kan ikke spise mat. I cannot eat food. Other modal auxileries and their english counterparts are as follows: