Javakheti CIVICS Case Study
Within the CIVICS project on Socio-economic tools for Integrated Conservation Planning in Multu-ethic South Caucasus, one of the case studies is carried out in the Javakheti region.
Background material 
The town of Akhalkalaki has a population of 14,600 (when?) and is situated on the Akhlkalaki volcanic plateau at an elevation of 1700 m above sea level.
The district has an area of 1235 km2 at a population of 62,300 (when?) (population density: 49 inhabitants/km2).
Ninotsminda district – Town Ninotsminda with the population of 6000 issituated on the elevation of 1940m above sea level.
History of Javakheti 
Javakheti was an important part of the of Kartli Kingdom of Kartli. In the 11th century Akhalkalaki became the center of upper Javakheti, and Tmogvi the center of lower Javakheti. Under the Georgian Kingdom (11th-13th centuries), bridges, churches, monasteries, and royal residences (Lgivi, Ghrtila, Bozhano, Vardzia) were constructed. From the 13th century, Javakheti included the territories of Palakatsio (modern Turkey) and part of Meskheti. In the 15th century, Javakheti was governed by Samtskhe-Saabatago. In the 16th century, it became part of the Ottoman Empire.  The Georgian population of Javakheti was displaced to inner regions of Georgia - part to Imereti, and another to Kartli. Those who remained in the place became Muslims.
As a result of the struggles of the Russian Empire with the Ottomans, Russian authorities settled Christian Armenians and Greeks in the area after 1828. Armenian refugees from the genocide in the Ottoman Empire came in the early 20th century. Also a large number of Russian Doukhobor sect members settled the region.
Akhalkalaki was founded in 1064. Soon the city was destroyed in invasions of the of Georgia. In the 11th century Akhalkalaki became a political and economical centre of Javakheti. Under Ottoman rule, the city became a sanjak centre in Province, Ottoman Empire|Çıldır Eyaleti. The town was known as "Ahılkelek". After the War (1828–1829)|Russo-Turkish War in 1828–1829 the city became part of the Russian Empire. Georgian Muslims were deported to Turkey and Armenians were settled down from the Vilayet Vilayet of Erzurum].
Educational Institutions 
- Tbilisi State University opens in 2002 in Akhalkalaki. After 2005 the branch was closed again.
Armenians in Javakheti 
- Boeschoten, Hendrik; Rentzsch, Julian (2010). Turcology in Mainz. p. 142. ISBN 978-3-447-06113-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=XtW6cox7CIUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Turcology+in+Mainz&hl=en&ei=SQ4YTsqyIIqr8AP10YUv&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
- Suny, Ronald Grigor (1994), The Making of the Georgian Nation: 2nd edition. Indiana University Press, p. 34
- Georgian Soviet Encyclopedia, volume 2, 1977, p. 96