Introduction the the Psychomotor Behaviors
Dr. Benjamin S. Bloom initiated “Bloom’s Taxonomy of learning in 1956 as a design and evaluation toolkit for academic education. Today it is applicable to all types of learning.
There are three domains in Bloom’s Taxonomy:
- Cognitive Domain (knowledge)
- Affective Domain (attitude)
- Psychomotor Domain (skills)
Bloom believes that all three domains are important, however, this lesson will concentrate on the only on the Psychomotor Domain.
What is a Domain?
A domain simply mean category. What is the Psychomotor Domain? The Psychomotor Domain is skill based and refers to the learning of skills. Psychical skills are the ability move, act, or manually manipulate the body to perform a psychical movement. What is taxonomy? Taxonomy is a structure, a plan, or a checklist to assist in planning training to cover each development stage of the learner’s growth. It is important that each stage is mastered before moving on to the next stage.
What is a psychomotor behavior?
If you are tying to figure out if your behavior is cognitive, affective, or psychomotor, consider the following factors.
- Speed may be a factor in psychomotor skills. Equipment and/or tools may be needed to perform the psychomotor skills.
- Testing requires more than just a pencil and paper based assessment .
- Psychomotor skills need to be performed and observed to determine mastery of the skill.
Examples and Non-examples
- How to ride a bike
- Wrapping a present
- Changing a diaper
- Types of bikes
- Types of wrapping paper
- Why babies wet their diapers
Besides Bloom, there are several other noted learning theorists that explain this domain. The four primary domains have been developed by RH Dave (1967), EJ Simpson (1972), AJ Harrow (1972), and A Romiszowski. Dave’s Psychomotor Domain is the simplest domain and easy to apply in a corporate environment. The Psychomotor Domains defined by Harrow and Simpson are better suited for certain adult training and for teaching young adults and children.
The table below compares each of the Psychomotor Domains.
|Imitation (copy)||Perception (awareness)||Reflex Movement||Acquiring Knowledge|
|Manipulation||Set||Basic Fundamental Movements||Executing Actions|
|Develop Precision||Guided Response||Perceptual Abilities||Transfer|
|Naturalization||Complex Overt Response||Skilled Movements||Generalization|
Dave’s Psychomotor Domain
In order to better understand the Psychomotor Domain, we will examine the psychomotor taxonomy adaptation developed by R. H. Dave. The following table examines Dave’s Psychomotor Domain by listing psychical behavior descriptions for each stage, examples of activities, demonstrations, and evidence of learning, and last, key words or verbs that describe that stage.
According to learning theorist A. Romiszowski, there is a Skills Schema. This is where psychical skills exist on a continuum with reproductive skills at one end and productive skills at the other end. Reproductive skills are when the learner is copying or imitating the skills learned. Productive skills are when the learner is adapting the skills and creating a new skill.
Three Levels in the Instructional Process
Regardless of which domain that one chooses to follow, there are three basic levels or steps in the overall instructional process: Imitation, practice, and habit.
1. Imitation: During this level the instructor shares the knowledge content and demonstrates the skill. This level is when the instructor shares the essential information about the skill, such as facts, background information, safety considerations, etc. then the instructor breaks the skills into small steps, demonstrates the skill and allows the learner reenacts or copy the skill.
2. Practice: During this level the student is allowed to practice alone and/or with the instructor to practice the skill over and over, with feedback from the instructor until mastering the basic skill. The student is able to ask questions, receive feedback, and try in a friendly safe environment.
3. Habit: The last level is when the student develops such proficiency that they are able to perform the skill in twice the time or at an expert level. Performance of the skill becomes nature or second nature. When the student reaches this level, they are able to create their own versions of the skill and teach others.
Basic knowledge and skills start low and progressively increase to more sophisticated skills, higher level of abilities, and learners develop critical understanding of performance.
The Psychomotor Domain originally related to psychical movements, however, today it also relates to communicates, such as telephone skills and public speech, and to computer operations, such as data entry and keyboard skills.
Before you begin to design instruction for a psychomotor behavior, review the next example. The following is an example of a lesson applying Dave’s Psychomotor Domain to teach a psychical behavior such as jumping jacks.
Learning Task: Concepts of jump jacks, advantages of performing jumping jack, and perform rhythmic jumping jack skills
- Student will demonstrate three different type of jumping jacks
- Student will show rhythmic coordination by participating in jumping jack activities
- Bloom’s Taxonomy – Learning Domains retrieved from www.businessballs.com on March 5, 2007
- Romiszowski, A (1999) The Development of Physical Skills: Instruction in the Psychomotor Domain, Chapter 19, Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, Volume II, C. M. Reigeluth, Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
|Instructional Design||Psychomotor Behaviors|