History

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French painter and art theorist, Charles Lebrun is the dominant artist of Louis XIV's reign. Credit: Gdr.
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History starts with events, particularly in human affairs.

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These events are in the past.

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As these events are no longer here in the present, they cannot be studied directly.

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Sometimes there is a whole series of events connected with someone or something.

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A continuous, typically chronological, record of important or public events or of a particular trend or institution is studied as a history of these events.

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Notation[edit]

Notation: let the symbol Def. indicate that a definition is following.

Notation: let the symbols between [ and ] be replacement for that portion of a quoted text.

Notation: let the symbol ... indicate unneeded portion of a quoted text.

Sometimes these are combined as [...] to indicate that text has been replaced by ....

Universals[edit]

To help with definitions, their meanings and intents, there is the learning resource theory of definition.

Def. evidence that demonstrates that a concept is possible is called proof of concept.

The proof-of-concept structure consists of

  1. background,
  2. procedures,
  3. findings, and
  4. interpretation.[1]

The findings demonstrate a statistically systematic change from the status quo or the control group.

Control group[edit]

Humanities[edit]

History as creative writing[edit]

A compilation of historical writings that created social transformation.

Temporal distribution[edit]

Spatial distribution[edit]

Phenomenal distribution[edit]

Colors[edit]

Commodities[edit]

Theoretical history[edit]

Def. a "period of time that has already happened, in contrast to the present and the future"[2] is called a past.

Def.

  1. an "occurrence; something that happens",[3]
  2. a "point in spacetime having three spatial coordinates and one temporal coordinate",[3]
  3. a "possible action that the user can perform that is monitored by an application or the operating system",[3] or
  4. a "set of some of the possible outcomes; a subset of the sample space"[3]

is called an event.

Def.

  1. the "aggregate of past events",[4]
  2. the "branch of knowledge that studies the past; the assessment of notable events",[4]
  3. a "set of events involving an entity",[4]
  4. a "record or narrative description of past events",[4]
  5. the "list of past and continuing medical conditions of an individual or family",[4]
  6. a "record of previous user events, especially of visited web pages in a browser",[4] or
  7. something "that no longer exists or is no longer relevant"[4]

is called history.

Entities[edit]

"History and experience act as a filter that can distort as much as elucidate. It is largely forgotten now, overlooked in the one-line description of Tony Blair and George W Bush as the men who lied about Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, but there was a wider context to their conviction."[5] Bold added.

Sources[edit]

Objects[edit]

Recent[edit]

"While the human groups are many and diverse, they are conveniently combined in two categories: first, the natural or consanguineal or kinship group in which the unit is the ethnos; and second, the artificial or essentially social group in which the unit is the demos. The ethnos, or ethnic group, is the homologue of the varietal or specific group of animals; it is the dominant group in lower savagery, but its influence on human life wanes upward, to practically disappear in enlightenment except as retained in the structure of the family. The demos is the product of intelligence applied to the regulation of human affairs; it has no true homologue among animals; its importance waxes as that of the ethnos wanes from savagery through barbarism and civilization and thence into enlightenment."[6]

"Few concepts are as emotionally charged as that of race. The word conjures up a mixture of associations—culture, ethnicity, genetics, subjugation, exclusion and persecution. But is the tragic history of efforts to define groups of people by race really a matter of the misuse of science, the abuse of a valid biological concept?"[7]

Geography[edit]

"With some of it on the south and more of it on the north of the great main thoroughfare that connects Aldgate and the East India Docks, St. Bede's at this period of its history was perhaps the poorest and most miserable parish in the East End of London."[8]

"US history is replete with examples of the confounding of dominant group and national interests."[9]

"Throughout U. S. history, dominant groups have attempted to impose a set of values and norms on subordinate groups."[10]

Mathematics[edit]

Physics[edit]

Science[edit]

Technology[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Ginger Lehrman and Ian B Hogue, Sarah Palmer, Cheryl Jennings, Celsa A Spina, Ann Wiegand, Alan L Landay, Robert W Coombs, Douglas D Richman, John W Mellors, John M Coffin, Ronald J Bosch, David M Margolis (August 13, 2005). "Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study". Lancet 366 (9485): 549-55. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67098-5. Retrieved on 2012-05-09. 
  2. "past, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 22. 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "event, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 18, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 "history, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 11, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22. 
  5. Peter Beaumont (September 6, 2013). "Lessons of past cast shadows over Syria". The Guardian Weekly 189 (13): 18. Retrieved on 2013-11-22. 
  6. W J McGee (July 1899). "The Trend of Human Progress". American Anthropologist New Series 1 (3): 401-47. Retrieved on 2011-09-20. 
  7. Jan Sapp (March-April 2012). "Race Finished". American Scientist 100 (2): 164. Retrieved on 2013-11-22. 
  8. W. B. Maxwell (1918). "7". The Mirror and the Lamp. http://openlibrary.org/works/OL1097634W. Retrieved 2013-11-22. 
  9. Ashley W. Doane Jr. (June 1997). "Dominant Group Ethnic Identity in the United States: The Role of “Hidden’ Ethnicity in Intergroup Relations". The Sociological Quarterly 38 (3): 375-97. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1997.tb00483.x. Retrieved on 2012-04-03. 
  10. Martin Carnoy (1989). Henry A. Giroux, Peter McLaren. ed. Education, State, and Culture in American Society, In: Critical pedagogy, the state, and cultural struggle. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 3-23. ISBN 0791400360. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=x6G8AglUSWQC&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&ots=DYdAm8JSdy&sig=VAtJXc8TB47eQH2EelPhZaefajA. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Template:African history

Template:Anthropology resources

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