History

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French painter and art theorist, Charles Lebrun is the dominant artist of Louis XIV's reign. Credit: Gdr.
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History starts with events, particularly in human affairs.

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These events are in the past.

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As these events are no longer here in the present, they cannot be studied directly.

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Sometimes there is a whole series of events connected with someone or something.

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A continuous, typically chronological, record of important or public events or of a particular trend or institution is studied as a history of these events.

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Notation[edit]

Notation: let the symbol Def. indicate that a definition is following.

Notation: let the symbols between [ and ] be replacement for that portion of a quoted text.

Notation: let the symbol ... indicate unneeded portion of a quoted text.

Sometimes these are combined as [...] to indicate that text has been replaced by ....

Universals[edit]

Def. a "characteristic or property that particular things have in common"[1] is called a universal.

"When we examine common words, we find that, broadly speaking, proper names stand for particulars, while other substantives, adjectives, prepositions, and verbs stand for universals."[2]

Such words as "entity", "object", "thing", and perhaps "body", words "connoting universal properties, ... constitute the very highest genus or "summum genus"" of a classification of universals.[3] To propose a definition for say a plant whose flowers open at dawn on a warm day to be pollinated during the day time using the word "thing", "entity", "object", or "body" seems too general and is.

To help with definitions, their meanings and intents, there is the learning resource theory of definition.

Control groups[edit]

This is an image of a Lewis rat. Credit: Charles River Laboratories.

The findings demonstrate a statistically systematic change from the status quo or the control group.

“In the design of experiments, treatments [or special properties or characteristics] are applied to [or observed in] experimental units in the treatment group(s).[4] In comparative experiments, members of the complementary group, the control group, receive either no treatment or a standard treatment.[5]"[6]

Proof of concept[edit]

Def. a “short and/or incomplete realization of a certain method or idea to demonstrate its feasibility"[7] is called a proof of concept.

Def. evidence that demonstrates that a concept is possible is called proof of concept.

The proof-of-concept structure consists of

  1. background,
  2. procedures,
  3. findings, and
  4. interpretation.[8]

Radiation[edit]

Trematolobelia macrostachys occurs on Mount Ka'ala, O'ahu. Credit: Karl Magnacca.

"An evolutionary radiation is an increase in taxonomic diversity or morphological disparity, due to adaptive change or the opening of ecospace.[9] Radiations may affect one clade or many, and be rapid or gradual; where they are rapid, and driven by a single lineage's adaptation to their environment, they are termed adaptive radiations.[10]"[11]

"Perhaps the most familiar example of an evolutionary radiation is that of [Eutheria] placental mammals immediately after the extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous, about 65 million years ago. At that time, the placental mammals were mostly small, insect-eating animals similar in size and shape to modern shrews. By the Eocene (58–37 million years ago), they had evolved into such diverse forms as bats, whales, and horses.[12]"[11]

"The Hawaiian lobelioids are a group of flowering plants in the [Campanula] bellflower family, Campanulaceae, all of which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. This is the largest plant radiation in the Hawaiian Islands, and indeed the largest on any island archipelago, with over 125 species."[13]

Humanities[edit]

History as creative writing[edit]

A compilation of historical writings that created social transformation.

Temporal distribution[edit]

Spatial distribution[edit]

Phenomenal distribution[edit]

Colors[edit]

Commodities[edit]

Theoretical history[edit]

Def. a "period of time that has already happened, in contrast to the present and the future"[14] is called a past.

Def.

  1. an "occurrence; something that happens",[15]
  2. a "point in spacetime having three spatial coordinates and one temporal coordinate",[15]
  3. a "possible action that the user can perform that is monitored by an application or the operating system",[15] or
  4. a "set of some of the possible outcomes; a subset of the sample space"[15]

is called an event.

Def.

  1. the "aggregate of past events",[16]
  2. the "branch of knowledge that studies the past; the assessment of notable events",[16]
  3. a "set of events involving an entity",[16]
  4. a "record or narrative description of past events",[16]
  5. the "list of past and continuing medical conditions of an individual or family",[16]
  6. a "record of previous user events, especially of visited web pages in a browser",[16] or
  7. something "that no longer exists or is no longer relevant"[16]

is called history.

Entities[edit]

"History and experience act as a filter that can distort as much as elucidate. It is largely forgotten now, overlooked in the one-line description of Tony Blair and George W Bush as the men who lied about Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, but there was a wider context to their conviction."[17] Bold added.

Sources[edit]

Objects[edit]

Recent[edit]

"While the human groups are many and diverse, they are conveniently combined in two categories: first, the natural or consanguineal or kinship group in which the unit is the ethnos; and second, the artificial or essentially social group in which the unit is the demos. The ethnos, or ethnic group, is the homologue of the varietal or specific group of animals; it is the dominant group in lower savagery, but its influence on human life wanes upward, to practically disappear in enlightenment except as retained in the structure of the family. The demos is the product of intelligence applied to the regulation of human affairs; it has no true homologue among animals; its importance waxes as that of the ethnos wanes from savagery through barbarism and civilization and thence into enlightenment."[18]

"Few concepts are as emotionally charged as that of race. The word conjures up a mixture of associations—culture, ethnicity, genetics, subjugation, exclusion and persecution. But is the tragic history of efforts to define groups of people by race really a matter of the misuse of science, the abuse of a valid biological concept?"[19]

Geography[edit]

"With some of it on the south and more of it on the north of the great main thoroughfare that connects Aldgate and the East India Docks, St. Bede's at this period of its history was perhaps the poorest and most miserable parish in the East End of London."[20]

"US history is replete with examples of the confounding of dominant group and national interests."[21]

"Throughout U. S. history, dominant groups have attempted to impose a set of values and norms on subordinate groups."[22]

Mathematics[edit]

Physics[edit]

Science[edit]

Technology[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. "universal, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  2. Bertrand Russel (1912). Chapter 9, In: The Problems of Philosophy. 
  3. Irving M. Copi (1955). Introduction to Logic. New York: The MacMillan Company. pp. 472. 
  4. Klaus Hinkelmann, Oscar Kempthorne (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (2nd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-72756-9. http://books.google.com/?id=T3wWj2kVYZgC&printsec=frontcover. 
  5. R. A. Bailey (2008). Design of comparative experiments. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68357-9. http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521683579. 
  6. "Treatment and control groups, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-31. 
  7. "proof of concept, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 10, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  8. Ginger Lehrman and Ian B Hogue, Sarah Palmer, Cheryl Jennings, Celsa A Spina, Ann Wiegand, Alan L Landay, Robert W Coombs, Douglas D Richman, John W Mellors, John M Coffin, Ronald J Bosch, David M Margolis (August 13, 2005). "Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study". Lancet 366 (9485): 549-55. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67098-5. Retrieved on 2012-05-09. 
  9. Wesley Hunt. doi:10.1666.2F0094-8373.282005.29031.3C0035:TMDOCI.3E2.0.CO.3B2.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. Schluter, D. (2000). The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation. Oxford University Press. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Evolutionary radiation, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. February 27, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  12. This topic is covered in a very accessible manner in Chapter 11 Richard Fortey (1997). Life: An Unauthorised Biography. 
  13. "Hawaiian lobelioids, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. March 6, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  14. "past, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 22. 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 "event, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 18, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 "history, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 11, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22. 
  17. Peter Beaumont (September 6, 2013). "Lessons of past cast shadows over Syria". The Guardian Weekly 189 (13): 18. Retrieved on 2013-11-22. 
  18. W J McGee (July 1899). "The Trend of Human Progress". American Anthropologist New Series 1 (3): 401-47. Retrieved on 2011-09-20. 
  19. Jan Sapp (March-April 2012). "Race Finished". American Scientist 100 (2): 164. Retrieved on 2013-11-22. 
  20. W. B. Maxwell (1918). "7". The Mirror and the Lamp. http://openlibrary.org/works/OL1097634W. Retrieved 2013-11-22. 
  21. Ashley W. Doane Jr. (June 1997). "Dominant Group Ethnic Identity in the United States: The Role of “Hidden’ Ethnicity in Intergroup Relations". The Sociological Quarterly 38 (3): 375-97. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1997.tb00483.x. Retrieved on 2012-04-03. 
  22. Martin Carnoy (1989). Henry A. Giroux, Peter McLaren. ed. Education, State, and Culture in American Society, In: Critical pedagogy, the state, and cultural struggle. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 3-23. ISBN 0791400360. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=x6G8AglUSWQC&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&ots=DYdAm8JSdy&sig=VAtJXc8TB47eQH2EelPhZaefajA. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Template:African history

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