Economics

From Wikiversity
Jump to: navigation, search
Smiley green alien cry.svg Completion status: this resource is a stub, which means that pretty much nothing has been done yet.

Economics is the study of the value system and rewards of a particular society.

Nuvola apps edu science.svg Development status: this resource is experimental in nature.
Nuvola apps kmessedwords.png Educational level: this is a primary education resource.
Books-aj.svg aj ashton 01b.svg Educational level: this is a secondary education resource.
Sciences humaines.svg Educational level: this is a tertiary (university) resource.
Nuvola apps edu science.svg Educational level: this is a research resource.
38254-new folder-12.svg Resource type: this resource is an article.
Nuvola apps edu languages.svg Resource type: this resource contains a lecture or lecture notes.
Tysons Pygmy (73549097).jpg Subject classification: this is an Anthropology resource.
Demand and supply of foreign exchange.png Subject classification: this is an economics resource.

Notation[edit]

Notation: let the symbol Def. indicate that a definition is following.

Notation: let the symbols between [ and ] be replacement for that portion of a quoted text.

Notation: let the symbol ... indicate unneeded portion of a quoted text.

Sometimes these are combined as [...] to indicate that text has been replaced by ....

Universals[edit]

Def. a "characteristic or property that particular things have in common"[1] is called a universal.

"When we examine common words, we find that, broadly speaking, proper names stand for particulars, while other substantives, adjectives, prepositions, and verbs stand for universals."[2]

Such words as "entity", "object", "thing", and perhaps "body", words "connoting universal properties, ... constitute the very highest genus or "summum genus"" of a classification of universals.[3] To propose a definition for say a plant whose flowers open at dawn on a warm day to be pollinated during the day time using the word "thing", "entity", "object", or "body" seems too general and is.

To help with definitions, their meanings and intents, there is the learning resource theory of definition.

Control groups[edit]

This is an image of a Lewis rat. Credit: Charles River Laboratories.

The findings demonstrate a statistically systematic change from the status quo or the control group.

“In the design of experiments, treatments [or special properties or characteristics] are applied to [or observed in] experimental units in the treatment group(s).[4] In comparative experiments, members of the complementary group, the control group, receive either no treatment or a standard treatment.[5]"[6]

Proof of concept[edit]

Def. a “short and/or incomplete realization of a certain method or idea to demonstrate its feasibility"[7] is called a proof of concept.

Def. evidence that demonstrates that a concept is possible is called proof of concept.

The proof-of-concept structure consists of

  1. background,
  2. procedures,
  3. findings, and
  4. interpretation.[8]

Business[edit]

Money[edit]

Trade[edit]

Theoretical economics[edit]

Def. "a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses"[9] is called economics.

Alternately,

Def. a science that studies the production, consumption, and transfer of wealth is called economics.

Entities[edit]

Sources[edit]

Objects[edit]

Strong forces[edit]

Weak forces[edit]

Materials[edit]

Shelters[edit]

Geography[edit]

History[edit]

Mathematics[edit]

Physics[edit]

Science[edit]

Technology[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. "universal, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  2. Bertrand Russel (1912). Chapter 9, In: The Problems of Philosophy. 
  3. Irving M. Copi (1955). Introduction to Logic. New York: The MacMillan Company. pp. 472. 
  4. Klaus Hinkelmann, Oscar Kempthorne (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (2nd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-72756-9. http://books.google.com/?id=T3wWj2kVYZgC&printsec=frontcover. 
  5. R. A. Bailey (2008). Design of comparative experiments. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68357-9. http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521683579. 
  6. "Treatment and control groups, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-31. 
  7. "proof of concept, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 10, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  8. Ginger Lehrman and Ian B Hogue, Sarah Palmer, Cheryl Jennings, Celsa A Spina, Ann Wiegand, Alan L Landay, Robert W Coombs, Douglas D Richman, John W Mellors, John M Coffin, Ronald J Bosch, David M Margolis (August 13, 2005). "Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study". Lancet 366 (9485): 549-55. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67098-5. Retrieved on 2012-05-09. 
  9. Lionel Robbins (1932). 15 An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science. London. http://books.google.com/books?id=nySoIkOgWQ4C&printsec=find&pg=PA15#v=onepage&q&f=false 15. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Template:Africa resources


Template:Geography resources

Template:History resources


Template:Monopolistics practices

Template:Psychology resources

Template:Sociology resources