# Concept Classification: Skill Builder Practice

## Try It!

Your task is to teach a concept in no more than one paragraph. Pick a concept (a person, place, thing, or idea), develop your solution using the model in this lesson, and add it below.

• When teaching inclined plane problem in physics, there is only one thing that MUST exist: an incline with a mass on it (prototype). Any problem that does not involve an incline is not an inclined plane problem (discrimination). There are many types of inclined plane problems: the mass on the incline can be at rest, moving at a constant velocity, or accelerating. The mass may be staying still, moving up the incline, or moving down the incline. As long as there is a mass and an incline, these variable characteristics do not exclude it from being an inclined plane problem (generalization). There are 14 types of inclined plane problem possibilities, and by knowing key pieces of information (1. Is the object at rest, constant velocity, or accelerating? 2. Is the object staying still, moving up the incline, or moving down the incline? 3. Is friction present?) you can develop algorithms for solving the problem. When first presenting these to my students, I spend much time showing them how to recognize those three key pieces of information. We then practice problems together with myself giving feedback, followed by them practicing in groups with their peers giving feedback, and finally practicing on their own using our online homework system that provides immediate feedback electronically (and provides an unlimited number of tries). I facilitate encoding by using diagrams, labeling parts on the diagrams, and helping students to identify the critical characteristics of these types of problems. Smccorma 02:49, 3 February 2012 (UTC)smccorma
• Concept lesson: What is a metaphor?

1. Present the prototype: The lake was glass. 2. Prompt discrimination: Why is this a metaphor? What is the sentence doing with its component parts? Present definition: a sentence or phrase that links two non-alike things as though they are alike. 3. Establish critical characteristics with matched nonexample: The lake was like glass. Is this a metaphor? Why or why not? Present definition of a simile: a sentence or phrase that compares two things using “like” or “as.” 4. Promote generalization: present critical characteristics via examples diagrammed to show link between non-alike things (e.g., “Life is a box of chocolates.”) and nonexamples diagramming comparisons between things. (e.g., “Life is like a box of chocolates.”) 5. Practice with feedback: Encode by having learners 1.) diagram links between nonalike things (examples) and comparisons (nonexamples) and answering the question: is this a metaphor?); offer immediate feedback on learner choices. 2.) create their own metaphors; offer immediate feedback to reinforce generalization. Kevmcgra 20:44, 3 February 2012 (UTC)

• Concept of a Prototype.

A prototype is a test example of a product. The prototype is often the first physical formation of a product. For example, before a vacuum cleaner is placed on the market, it may be prototyped several times. That means that one vacuum cleaner will be manufactured based on a design plan. After the prototype has been created, it will be evaluated to see how well it works. Changes to the design and/or materials used may be suggested. A product may go through many prototypes before the final product is put on the marker. After each prototype of the vacuum is created and evaluated, a new prototype is created that incorporates the changes that need to be done based on the previous evaluation. A prototype will often use cheaper materials or processes than will the final product. A prototype is sometimes called a “model”. However, a model is usually a finished representation of the product; the one that will go to market. Aabrell 01:47, 4 February 2012 (UTC)

• Concept of a Proper Noun

I would present a prototype for a person, place, and thing (e.g., President Obama, Washington DC, and the White House). I would then present some matched non-examples (e.g., man, city, and building). I would ask what makes the first group proper nouns. How do they differ from the common nouns? This will hopefully prompt the class to guess the two key features of a proper noun, that they name a specific item and are always capitalized (discrimination). I would present many more examples to show how proper nouns can vary. Hatch.nicole 04:04, 4 February 2012 (UTC)

• Concept: squash (vegetable)

(In Chinese, yellow squash is called pumpkin. While the green, lean ones are called differently. "Squash" may be a little bit confusing for Chinese learners of English.) 1. I would show a picture of a yellow, pear-shaped squash (or a real one), and tell students the name "squash". 2. Show pictures of squashes in several other colors or shapes, and ask students whether they are squash. Tell students the correct answer. 3. Present the dictionary definition: any of several types of large gourd common in the US and eaten as a vegetable. And list the characteristics of squash. 4. Show some pictures of squashes in other colors or shapes that haven't be presented before. Ask students whether they are squash. Then give feedback (confirm or correct). 5. Show a picture of pumpkin, and let students guess. Tell them that pumpkin is not squash. 6. Ask students to tell the distinction between squash and pumpkin. Summarize their distinctions. Shuya Xu 05:46, 4 February 2012 (UTC)

• Teach concept (triangle) to preschoolers

I would like to take an “examples-generality-practice” process to teach this concept. 1). There should be no better way than showing all types of triangles, of all sizes and colors, to preschoolers at the very beginning. 2). After that I would ask them to generalize the feature of triangle. If they cannot hit the most critical feature—a triangle has three angles, I will present more shapes, a circle, a rectangle, a polygon etc.(nonexamples) , and ask them the difference between a triangle and these shapes, and remind them to focus on the number of angles each shape has. 3). Generalize the feature of triangle, and confirm the concept. 4). Practice includes: find out triangles among several groups of shapes; find out triangles in our daily life; draw triangles; use triangle paper pieces to make collage.Zhaomeng 06:44, 4 February 2012 (UTC)

• Teaching "Fruits"

I will do prototype - generalization - example - practice. In this case, students already know "vegetables". I would like to start with providing prototypes of fruits such as images of oranges, grapes, and apples that students usually see in their daily lives. The images of prototypes will be followed by a definition of fruits. And then, I would provide a couple images of fruits shuffled with a couple images of vegetables with explanations of what it is and why it is by comparing and contrasting with one another. After this activity, students will be given a task in which they need to take several pictures of what they think is fruits and explain why they are fruits. When they bring those pictures, students will discuss their pictures with their partners and decide if the images are of fruits or vegetables, or something else, and present their pictures with their explanation. I would give informational and motivational feedback. Dablee 21:14, 5 February 2012 (UTC)

• Concept of Sonnet

First, I would present a prototype of the sonnet from Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet that most of learners may be familiar with. Then, I would give criterion definitions of the sonnet such as 14 lines and rhyme scheme and also give them matched non-examples of sonnet such as other general poetry or lyrics. Then, I would continue to give them other examples of sonnets from various authors from various period of time explaining how the criteria is met with all those different examples. Lastly, I would give them practice opportunity where they need to determine whether given practice examples meet the criteria of being a sonnet and at the same time, they will receive my timely feedback based on their performance.Yeolhuh 21:25, 5 February 2012 (UTC)

• What is a credit card?

(I may first pass around a collection different credit cards (relatively more), debit cards, as well as charge cards (as prototypes) that I entirely made out of paper and list the overview of each card on the back of the "card", for example, credit line, bill payment terms etc. as prompt for generalization.) A credit card is a type of card that may repeatedly allow users to borrow money or purchase products and services on credit (definition). Credit cards are issued by banks or other businesses such as retailers. For example, Megan Adams has a Bank of America credit card as well as an Amazon credit card with a credit limit of \$3,000 on each. Megan can use the credit card to access money up to \$3,000 as the limit that she cannot exceed, pay it back and borrow it again when she shops online or pays bills (example). However, credit cards are different from debit cards which are directly linked to a user's bank account, used for buying goods or withdrawal of cash. The amount is taken from a bank account with sufficient balance right after the purchase. Credit cards are neither charge cards (i.e. American Express Charge Cards) that allow no pre-set spending limit while the card holder must repay full balance at the end of each month. (non-examples/discrimination)

(There is practice and feedback at the end to ask the learner to design/customize a credit card for a family member or to allow learners to compare or contrast a list of cards such as credit cards (example; not the one already mentioned in the paragraph above) and other non-credit cards. Informational and motivational feedback will be provided based on the learner's responses.) Y.Zhang 03:11, 6 February 2012 (UTC)