Comparative Teaching of Old Greek and Latin, Lesson 05 Part 1
Comparative Teaching of Old Greek and Latin Lesson 05 Part 1
Translated from the Greek Wikipedia|Wikiversity: "Συγκριτική διδασκαλία των κλασικών γλωσσών / (Comparative Teaching of the Classical Languages)"
LESSON 05 PART 1. The Direct questions
5.1.1. The direct questions in Old Greek.
The direct questions are main clauses, i.e. clauses that do not depend on a verb, as subordinate clauses do, with which we ask information on some person or thing. They are separated in a) main interrogative clauses of crisis and main interrogative clauses of wish and b) interrogative clauses of total ignorance and interrogative clauses of partial ignorance. The interrogative clauses of total ignorance can be one-membered (simple) or two-membered (bipartite), that is consisting of two or even more parts, having two or even more verbs. Finally direct questions are separated in real questions, when the asking person really wants to learn something, and in rhetorical questions, when the question itself also includes the answer.
The main interrogative clauses of partial ignorance are introduced by interrogative pronouns, as τίς (who), πότερος (which of two), πόσος (how much), ποῖος (of what kind), πηλίκος (how old), ποδαπός (from where), πόστος (in what place in a numerical series), ποσταῖος (in how many days), interrogative particles as ἆρα (then, therefore), ἆρά γε, ἆρ’ οὖν, ἦ, μῶν (lest, by any chance), οὐκοῦν (well, well then, so), οὔκουν (well not), μὴ (lest), ἀλλ’ ό τι ἤ, ἀλλ’ ἆρα and interrogative adverbs as ποῦ (where), ποῖ (to where), πόθεν (from where), πότε (when), πηνίκα (when), πῶς (how), πῇ (where, to where, how), πόσον (how much). As a rule in questions that are introduced with the particles οὐ, ἆρ’ οὐ, οὐκοῦν one expects an affirmative answer, while in questions that are introduced with the particles μή, ἆρα, μῶν one expects a negative answer.
The direct questions of total ignorance can also be introduced only by the tone of voice. The bipartite questions are introduced in the first part with πότερον ή πότερα, which can also be omitted, and in the second part with ἤ. The interrogative clauses of crisis have the verb in indicative mood, in potential indicative and in potential optative and take the negative particle οὐ, while the interrogative clauses of wish have the verb in subjunctive and take the negative particle μή. The one-membered direct questions of total ignorance usually do accept as answer an affirmative or negative expression, as ναί (yes), ναίχι (of course), δή, δῆτα, οὐ δῆτα (of course not), οὐ (not), πάνυ γε (certainly, surely), πάνυ μὲν οὖν, πῶς γὰρ οὐ, μάλιστα, οὐδαμῶς (in no case), ἥκιστα (least, minimum), ἦ (really), οὕτως (thus), φημί (I say). .
1. Πῶς ἔχεις τοῦ τραύματος (how is your wound?); Καλῶς ἔχω (I'm well).
2. Μῶν σύ εἶ ὁ Σωκράτης (do you happen to be Socrates?); Οὐ δῆτα (certainly not).
3. Ἆρ’ οὐκ ἔστι τινί καθεύδειν (Isn't it possible for one to sleep?); Πῶς γὰρ οὔ (of course it is);
4. Τὶ φῇς (what do you say?); Οὐδέν, δέσποτα (nothing, Sir).
5. Οὐκ ἀπιὼν οἰχήσει (Won't you go away?); Ταχύ γε (quickly, I will).
6. Ἄρτι (now) δὲ ἥκεις ἤ πάλαι (a long time ago); Ἥκω ἐπιεικῶς (sufficiently) πάλαι.
7. Τὶ τηνικάδε (at this time) ἀφῖξαι, ὦ Κρίτων; Ἀφῖγμαι, σε ὀψόμενος (in order to see you).
8. Τίνι (to whom, here who) ἄν ἀρέσκοι (would like) πόλις ἄνευ νόμων (city without laws); Οὐδενὶ ἄν ἀρέσκοι (noone would like).
9. Μή τι νεώτερον ἀγγέλλεις (do you happen to announce); Οὐδαμῶς (of course not).
10. Πότερον βούλει (do you want) μένειν ἤ ἀπιέναι (to go away); Μένειν (to stay).
11. Πότερον έγρήγορας (are you awake) ἤ καθεύδεις (do you sleep); Ὁρᾷς γὰρ (as you see).
12. Ποῖ (to where) τράπωμαι (shall I turn), ποῖ πορευθῶ (shall I go); Ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος (to the mountain).
13. Τί φῶμεν (what shall we say) πρὸς ταῦτα, ὦ Κρίτων; Οὐδέν (nothing).
14. Τίς ἄν τολμήσειε (who could have the courage) τοιαῦτα πρᾶξαι; Σωκράτης δῆλον ὅτι (Socrates, of course).
15. Οὐκοῦν (therefore) καὶ ἐν ψυχῇ (in soul) ἔστι τις τιμωρία (punishment); Πῶς γὰρ οὔ (of course);
5.1.2. The direct questions in Latin.
The direct questions in Latin are introduced by interrogative pronouns as quis (who), quid (what), quisnam (who then), qui (who), quae, quod, quinam, uter (who of two), utra, utrum, qualis (of what kind), quale, quantus (how much), -a, -um, quot (how many, indeclinable) and interrogative adverbs as ubi (where), quo (to where), unde (from where), qua, quando (when), quo’modo (how), cur (why), qua’mobrem (why), quare (how, why), quam (how much). The main interrogative clauses of crisis have the verb in indicative mood or in potential subjunctive and take the negative particle non, while the main interrogative clauses of wish have it in subjunctive mood and take the negative particle ne.
Direct questions take as an answer affirmative or negative particles as nae (yes), haud (no), non (no), ergo (consequently) and adverbs as e'tiam (yes, still), sic, ita (thus), ita est, bene, male, vero (truly), sane (of course), certe, a'dmodum (very), mi'nime (very little), immo (the opposite), immo'vero (the opposite), libe'nter (with pleasure), satis, nimis (excessively) etc. or the use a repetition of the verb in the appropriate form. The questions of total ignorance are introduced by the particular tone of the voice or by one of the interrogative particles ne, when the answer can be affirmative or negative, num, when one expects a negative answer, nonne, when one expects an affirmative answer. When the question is bipartite, it is introduced in the first part with utrum or ne and in the second part with an. The particle or not in a direct two-membered question is an non and more seldom is necne.
The position of the main terms (subject, verb, object etc) of the sentence was free in the Indoeuropean Language, a feature that was changed in the Ancient Greek and Latin language, with main characteristic the placement of the verb,in both classic languages, usually after the subject.
1. Cur tristis es, ami’ce? Why are you sad, my friend?
2. Quid est hoc? What is this?
3. Cur ergo cibum non capis? Why don't you take the food?
4. Quo’modo (how) res (the thing) facta est (to become)?
5. Ubi fui’sti, magi’ster? Where were you, teacher?
6. Quando redi’bis, mi fili? When will you come back, my child?
7. Quid facia’mus? Quid facere’mus? What shall we do? What should we have done?
8. Venie’sne ad nos cras? Will you come to us tomorrow?
9. Quid a’gerem (could I do), ju’dices?
10. Utrum scribis an legis? Are you writing or reading?
11. Verum an falsum est? Is this true or false?
12. Nonne memini’sti? Don't you remember?
13. Quid turpius est, quam menti’ri? What is more indecent than to tell lies?
14. Omni’sne pecu’nia dissolu’ta est? Has the whole money been paid?
15. Nonne ego dominus sum? Aren't I the teacher?
5.1.3. Peculiarities, deflections and completions:
(These elements are studied in second and in third phase, i.e. after it has been completed the study of the regular course.)
1. A direct question, with the exception of the rhetorical questions, is necessarily insufficient. It is supplemented with the meaning of its answer.
2. In direct two-membered questions is often omitted the introducing words πότερον or πότερα.
3. A direct question in 2nd singular person of the future indicative together with the negative particle οὐ denotes an intense command (οὐ σιγήσεις;) and together with the negatiuve particle οὐ μὴ denotes an intense prohibition (οὐ μὴ λαλήσεις;).
4. The direct question sometimes includes as well a negative opinion of the speaking person (quid i'nterest inter perju'rum et menda'cium? Which difference does exist between the perjury and the lie?)
To continue look at:Comparative Teaching of Old Greek and Latin, Lesson 05 Part 2
To see the Introduction look at:Comparative Teaching of Old Greek and Latin