Cold fusion/Galileo Project replications
This is a seminar (or draft of a paper to be possibly published) on the results of the Galileo project, an effort in 2007 to replicate published work of the SPAWAR group finding what has been claimed to be evidence of charged particle radiation from codeposition (palladium/deuterium) experiments.
The protocol for the Galileo project was designed by Pamela Mosier-Boss of the SPAWAR group, which has been working on the cold fusion or low-energy nuclear reaction field for twenty years.
We will examine the experimental results and the varying conclusions that have been drawn from them, and we will include a study of what is now better known, from subsequent publications, about the conditions and findings of the SPAWAR group, as well as ongoing efforts to explore Galileo-type codeposition cells and their behavior.
We will interview, if possible, experimenters and other experts, where questions about the experiments and their interpretation arise.
- 1 The foundations
- 2 The protocol
- 3 Questions
- 4 Additional work relating to the Galileo Project
- 5 External Links
There are a few details, written before the project results started coming in, at  This includes a comment that no tracks were found when controls were run without external magnetic or electric fields. This was an error, as explained in the final Report.
The following were publications of the work to be replicated:
- Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd/D lattice: emission of charged particles, Stanislaw Szpak & Pamela A. Mosier-Boss & Frank E. Gordon, Naturwissenschaften, Received: 5 September 2006 / Revised: 20 December 2006 / Accepted: 2 January 2007.
As the Project was organized and proceeded, publication continued:
- Use of CR-39 in Pd/D co-deposition experiments, P.A. Mosier-Boss , S. Szpak, F.E. Gordon, and L.P.G. Forsley, European Physical Journal, Applied Physics, Vol. 40, p. 293–303, (Dec. 13, 2007) Received: 11 June 2007/ Accepted: 28 August 2007 Published online: 13 December 2007
- Triple tracks in CR-39 as the result of Pd–D Co-deposition: evidence of energetic neutrons, Pamela A. Mosier-Boss & Stanislaw Szpak & Frank E. Gordon & Lawrence P. G. Forsley, Naturwissenschaften (2009) 96:135–142, Received: 30 July 2008 / Revised: 3 September 2008 / Accepted: 14 September 2008 / Published online: 1 October 2008
- Comment on “The use of CR-39 in Pd/D co-deposition experiments” by P.A. Mosier-Boss, S. Szpak, F.E. Gordon and L.P.G. Forsley, Interpreting SPAWAR-type dominant pits, L. Kowalski, European Physical Journal, Applied Physics, Vol. 44, p. 287-290 (2008) Received: 4 June 2008 / Received in final form: 11 July 2008 / Accepted: 24 July 2008 Published online: 6 December 2008
- Reply to comment on “The use of CR-39 in Pd/D co-deposition experiments”: a response to Kowalski, Mosier-Boss, Pamela, Szpak, Stan, Gordon, Frank, and Forsley, Lawrence P.G., European Physical Journal, Applied Physics, Vol. 44, p. 291-295 (2008) Received: 24 September 2008 / Accepted: 9 October 2008 Published online: 6 December 2008
There is a zipfile with the lab protocol and details.
We will explore these and other questions that may be asked by students or other interested persons, including experts in related fields.
Are these codeposition experiments?
The Galileo protocol begins with plating out all the palladium in the electrolyte, at low current. Isn't the voltage at that point too low to evolve deuterium? So isn't this just an experiment where deuterium is loaded into a palladium-plated cathode, created before the deuterium gas is generated? Or does deuterium evolution begin before the palladium is plated out?
Did the experimental groups replicate the SPAWAR work? What does "replication" mean?
All experimental groups found a pattern of CR-39 SSNTD pitting, next to the cathode, called "ground beef," which resembles earlier images published by the SPAWAR group. Later publication by SPAWAR shows different evidence, not in the "ground beef" areas, and claimed to indicate neutron radiation. To the extent that "ground beef" is considered replication, all groups confirmed that the Galileo protocol produces this phenomenon, so this finding has been replicated. However, whether or not this is evidence of charged particle radiation remains unclear and controversial. This seminar will explore the evidence and explanations provided by SPAWAR researchers, and those of others, relating to charged particle evidence. Another resource here will explore the later-known neutron evidence.
The research groups to be covered are those below. There may have been other groups not yet reporting results publicly.
Earthtech International, Inc., is a "privately funded research organization dedicated to the exploration of new frontiers in physics," code named "Beta 2" in the Project. Earthtech's results were not included in the final New Energy Times report, but they published, on the web, detailed reports and analysis.
Ludwik Kowalski is an Emeritus Professor of Physics at Montclair State University. His reports are at , covering how he became involved with the Project, and , covering his results. Dr. Kowalski's index covers many related topics.
University of California, San Diego
Tanzanella, McKubre, at SRI
What were the overall conclusions?
From the Project coordinator: 2007 Galileo Project Report