Chapter 1 Latin
- Case usage
- The 1st Declension
- Vocabulary 2
As we learned in the intro there are five cases in the Latin language. Here are the cases again.
The nominative case is the subject, predicate nominatives, and predicate adjectives.
The SUBJECT performs the action.
- Ex. The FARMER loves the girl.
The PREDICATE NOMINATIVE follows a linking verb( is, are, was, were, ect.) and renames the subject.
- Ex. The farmer was a POET.
The PREDICATE ADJECTIVE follows a linking verb( is, are, was, were, ect.)and renames the subject.
- Ex. The farmer is FAMOUS.
The genitive case show possession.
The dative case is the indirect object.
The accusative case is the direct object/ and object of certain prepositions.
The direct object receives the action.
|Agricolae AQUAM portant||The farmers carry the WATER.|
|Poeta PUELLAS amat||The poet loves the GIRLS.|
|Agricolae VIAM aedificant||The farmers build a ROAD|
|Puellae POETAM non amat||The girls do not love the POET.|
The ablative case is object of certain prepositions, and other special uses
The 1st Declension
There are five declensions in Latin. Every single noun has a declension. In Latin unlike English every noun has a gender, there are masculine, feminine, and neuter. Also every noun has a number, singular and plural.
So unto 1st declension. The following are the endings for the 1st declension.
So you may ask what are the endings for? Well the endings are to be added to the noun stem. Also the genitive singular ending tells you what declension a noun belongs to.
To find the noun stem drop the genitive singular ending. Ex.
- Poetae - ae = poet
NOTE! Most nouns in the first declension are feminine. With some exceptions, such as agricola, nauta, and poeta. All 3 of those are masculine nouns.
Here is an example
|Nominative||Aqua/ Water(subject)||Aquae/ waters(subject)|
|Genitive||Aquae/ of the water||Aquarum/ of the waters|
|Dative||Aquae/ to or for the water||Aquis/ To or for the waters|
|Accusative||Aquam/ Water(Direct obj.)||Aquas/ Waters(Direct obj.)|
|Ablative||Aqua/ Water||Aquis/ Waters|
- vita, vitae, f.
- casa, casae, f.
- fama, famae, f.
- familia, familiae, f.
- fortuna, fortunae, f.
- terra, terrae, f.
VERBS (you will learn about them in the next chapter.)
- amo, amare, amavi, amatus
- habito, habitare, habitavi, habitatus
- laboro, laborare, laboravi, laboratus
- paro, parare, paravi, paratus
- porto, portare, portavi, portatus
- specto, spectare, spectavi, spectatus
Your assignment is to find the meaning of all the words in the vocabulary section. Also to decline all the nouns. To decline them means to put them into a table such as the example of AQUA in the 1st declension section.