Agriculture

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Agriculture is the science, art, or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products.

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At right are farm buildings with trees surrounded by fields on a fair weather day.

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Notation[edit]

Notation: let the symbol Def. indicate that a definition is following.

Notation: let the symbols between [ and ] be replacement for that portion of a quoted text.

Notation: let the symbol ... indicate unneeded portion of a quoted text.

Sometimes these are combined as [...] to indicate that text has been replaced by ....

Universals[edit]

Def. a "characteristic or property that particular things have in common"[1] is called a universal.

"When we examine common words, we find that, broadly speaking, proper names stand for particulars, while other substantives, adjectives, prepositions, and verbs stand for universals."[2]

Such words as "entity", "object", "thing", and perhaps "body", words "connoting universal properties, ... constitute the very highest genus or "summum genus"" of a classification of universals.[3] To propose a definition for say a plant whose flowers open at dawn on a warm day to be pollinated during the day time using the word "thing", "entity", "object", or "body" seems too general and is.

To help with definitions, their meanings and intents, there is the learning resource theory of definition.

Control groups[edit]

This is an image of a Lewis rat. Credit: Charles River Laboratories.

The findings demonstrate a statistically systematic change from the status quo or the control group.

“In the design of experiments, treatments [or special properties or characteristics] are applied to [or observed in] experimental units in the treatment group(s).[4] In comparative experiments, members of the complementary group, the control group, receive either no treatment or a standard treatment.[5]"[6]

Proof of concept[edit]

Def. a “short and/or incomplete realization of a certain method or idea to demonstrate its feasibility"[7] is called a proof of concept.

Def. evidence that demonstrates that a concept is possible is called proof of concept.

The proof-of-concept structure consists of

  1. background,
  2. procedures,
  3. findings, and
  4. interpretation.[8]

Agronomy[edit]

Def. "[t]he science of utilizing plants, animals and soils for food, fuel, feed, and fiber and more"[9] is called agronomy.

Forestry[edit]

Def. the science or practice of planting, managing, and caring for forests is called forestry.

Horticulture[edit]

Def. the "art or science of cultivating gardens"[10] is called horticulture.

Gardening[edit]

Def. "the process or action of cultivating of the soil particularly in"[11] an "outdoor area containing one or more types of plants"[12] is called gardening.

Sciences[edit]

Def. "[t]he art or science of cultivating the ground, including the harvesting of crops, and the rearing and management of livestock; tillage; husbandry; farming"[13] is called agriculture.

Soils[edit]

"In soil, estimates are that 80 to 99% of the microorganisms remain unidentified (1)."[14]

"The soil at the Arlington site is a Plano silt-loam. The 20-cm-deep A horizon is a silt-loam and contains 4.4% organic matter. The loess mantel is >1.25 m deep. Four 2.5-cm-diameter soil cores were taken from the top 10 cm of a clover-grass pasture at the Arlington Agricultural Research Station. The soil samples were immediately placed on dry ice, mixed, and then stored at -70°C prior to DNA extraction. Soil analysis was done by the Soil Testing Laboratory of the University of Wisconsin—Madison as described by Schulte et al. (40). The soil sample contained 13% sand, 70% silt, 17% clay, 4.4% organic matter, 0.3% total N, 400 ppm of K+, and 98 ppm of P. The soil pH was 6.5. The site is well drained, with groundwater more than 25 m below the surface. Two-thirds of the 79-cm annual rainfall occurs from April to October. The site has an average of 165 frost-free days."[14]

Theoretical agriculture[edit]

Def. the "art or science of cultivating the ground, including the harvesting of crops, and the rearing and management of livestock; tillage; husbandry; farming"[15] is called agriculture.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. "universal, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  2. Bertrand Russel (1912). Chapter 9, In: The Problems of Philosophy. 
  3. Irving M. Copi (1955). Introduction to Logic. New York: The MacMillan Company. pp. 472. 
  4. Klaus Hinkelmann, Oscar Kempthorne (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (2nd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-72756-9. http://books.google.com/?id=T3wWj2kVYZgC&printsec=frontcover. 
  5. R. A. Bailey (2008). Design of comparative experiments. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68357-9. http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521683579. 
  6. "Treatment and control groups, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-31. 
  7. "proof of concept, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 10, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  8. Ginger Lehrman and Ian B Hogue, Sarah Palmer, Cheryl Jennings, Celsa A Spina, Ann Wiegand, Alan L Landay, Robert W Coombs, Douglas D Richman, John W Mellors, John M Coffin, Ronald J Bosch, David M Margolis (August 13, 2005). "Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study". Lancet 366 (9485): 549-55. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67098-5. Retrieved on 2012-05-09. 
  9. "agronomy, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. February 11, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-07. 
  10. "horticulture, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. October 8, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  11. "gardening, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. October 8, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  12. "garden, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. October 15, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  13. "agriculture, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 17, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-07. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 James Borneman, Paul W. Skroch, Katherine M. O'Sullivan, James A. Palus, Norma G. Rumjanek, Jennifer L. Jansen, James Nienhuis, and Eric W. Triplett (June 1996). "Molecular Microbial Diversity of an Agricultural Soil in Wisconsin". Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62 (6): 1935-43. Retrieved on 2013-11-21. 
  15. "agriculture, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. July 1. 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-30. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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