3-ary Boolean functions

There are $2^{2^{3}}$ = 256 3-ary Boolean functions, like set operations or logical connectives.

This Venn diagram , representing the intersection of 3 sets, or the conjunction of 3 statements respectively,
gives an example of a 3-ary Boolean function.

Actual arity

Not all of the 256 3-ary functions look really new. The 16 2-ary functions and their rotations are also among them.

218 functions in 32 secs are truly 3-ary:

 2*8 = 16     6*8 = 48 ggbec O 2*8 = 16     6*8 = 48 ggbec O 1*2 = 2 ggbec E0 3*8 = 24 ggbec E1 3*8 = 24 ggbec E2 6*4 = 24 ggbec E2 2*4 = 8     1*8 = 8 ggbec E3

30 functions in 9 secs are binary:
 3*2 = 6     6*4 = 24 ggbec E0        ggbec E1
6 functions in 3 secs are unary:
 3*2 = 6 ggbec E0
 2*1 = 2 ggbec E0

Equivalence classes

See: Equivalence classes of Boolean functions

The set of 256 functions can be parted into various equivalence classes.
The most basic way to do that are the 46 small equivalence classes (secs). Functions belong to the same sec, when they can be expressed by each other by negating arguments. There are 3 arguments that can be negated, so there can be up to $2^{3}$ = 8 different functions in a sec:

 A sec with 8 different functions: , , , , , , , A sec with only 2 different functions: ,

Big equivalence classes

Compare: Big equivalence classes of 4-ary Boolean functions

When binarily colored cubes can be transformed into each other by mirroring and rotation, they are essentially the same.
The corresponding Boolean functions are often called equivalent and belong to the same big equivalence class (bec).
There are 1 + 1 + 3 + 3 + 6 + 3 + 3 + 1 + 1 = 22 essentially different cubes and corresponding becs.

The following sortable table (in the collapsed box) shows the 22 becs.
The default order is that of the smallest numerical values of the binary strings. Sorting by column # brings back this default order.
The numbers in column weight are the hamming weights of the functions, i.e. the number of ones in the binary strings.
Column sec tells the number of secs in the bec, which are shown in column SEC.
Column f tells the number of functions in the bec.
The functions are shown in column F, with the numerically smallest one of each sec highlighted.
becs with an entry in column sona are related to subgroups of nimber addition.
The entry in column ggbec denotes the greatest big equivalence class (ggbec) the bec belongs to.
The nonlinearity of all functions in the bec is shown in column nonlin.
To sort by more than one column you can hold the shift-key and than click the other sort buttons. *

The numerical values of all infinite bit strings with a finite non-zero number of ones
can be ordered in an infinite array with the following features:

• The entries of each row are ordered by size and correspond to functions in the same bec.
• The entries in the first column are ordered by size.

This array contains all positive integers.
The gray index numbers shown on the left are an enumeration of big equivalence classes of n-ary Boolean functions that is independent of n.

These are the 255 entries of this array that correspond to 3-ary Boolean functions:

 ``` 1: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 2: 3, 5, 10, 12, 17, 34, 48, 68, 80, 136, 160, 192 3: 6, 9, 18, 20, 33, 40, 65, 72, 96, 130, 132, 144 4: 7, 11, 13, 14, 19, 21, 35, 42, 49, 50, 69, 76, 81, 84, 112, 138, 140, 162, 168, 176, 196, 200, 208, 224 5: 15, 51, 85, 170, 204, 240 6: 22, 41, 73, 97, 104, 134, 146, 148 7: 23, 43, 77, 113, 142, 178, 212, 232 8: 24, 36, 66, 129 9: 25, 26, 28, 37, 38, 44, 52, 56, 67, 70, 74, 82, 88, 98, 100, 131, 133, 137, 145, 152, 161, 164, 193, 194 10: 27, 29, 39, 46, 53, 58, 71, 78, 83, 92, 114, 116, 139, 141, 163, 172, 177, 184, 197, 202, 209, 216, 226, 228 11: 30, 45, 54, 57, 75, 86, 89, 99, 101, 106, 108, 120, 135, 147, 149, 154, 156, 166, 169, 180, 198, 201, 210, 225 12: 31, 47, 55, 59, 79, 87, 93, 115, 117, 143, 171, 174, 179, 186, 205, 206, 213, 220, 234, 236, 241, 242, 244, 248 13: 60, 90, 102, 153, 165, 195 14: 61, 62, 91, 94, 103, 110, 118, 122, 124, 155, 157, 167, 173, 181, 185, 188, 199, 203, 211, 217, 218, 227, 229, 230 15: 63, 95, 119, 175, 187, 207, 221, 238, 243, 245, 250, 252 16: 105, 150 17: 107, 109, 121, 151, 158, 182, 214, 233 18: 111, 123, 125, 159, 183, 190, 215, 222, 235, 237, 246, 249 19: 126, 189, 219, 231 20: 127, 191, 223, 239, 247, 251, 253, 254 21: 255 ```

Walsh spectrum

The Boolean function $\scriptstyle (1,0,1,0,0,1,1,0)$
has the Walsh spectrum $\scriptstyle (4,2,0,-2,0,2,0,2)$[1]
and the binary Walsh spectrum $\scriptstyle (0,1,0,1,0,1,0,1)$.

The Walsh spectrum of a Boolean function is the product of its binary string (as a row vector) with a Walsh matrix.
The first entry of the Walsh spectrum is the functions digit sum, and all entries have the same parity.
In the expandable boxes in the following chapter the Walsh spectra of the same sec (which differ only in the signs of their entries) are always shown in the same file.

The Walsh spectra of complementary functions sum up to $\scriptstyle (8,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,)$. [2]

Further the binary Walsh spectra are always shown by the red squares in the background. They are always rows of a binary Walsh matrix - or in other terms exclusive disjunctions of unnegated arguments.

The functions with odd digit sum, which make up ggbec O, have each binary Walsh spectrum one time in every sec.

The functions with even digit sum, which make up the other four ggbecs, have always the same binary Walsh spectrum in the same sec:

 $\scriptstyle \oplus()$ = 0000 0000 in ggbec E0 $\scriptstyle \oplus(A)$ = 0101 0101 or $\scriptstyle \oplus(B)$ = 0011 0011 or $\scriptstyle \oplus(C)$ = 0000 1111 in ggbec E1 $\scriptstyle \oplus(A,B)$ = 0110 0110 or $\scriptstyle \oplus(A,C)$ = 0101 1010 or $\scriptstyle \oplus(B,C)$ = 0011 1100 in ggbec E2 $\scriptstyle \oplus(A,B,C)$ = 0110 1001 in ggbec E3

Greatest big equivalence classes

This matrix shows the 256 functions arranged in a way similar to the Hasse diagram, which is an octeract graph.
(The respective matrix for 2-ary Boolean functions is this one.)
The colors indicate the five ggbecs, as shown in the following table.
All 3-ary functions in the same ggbec have the same nonlinearity. (Which is not the case e.g. for the 4-ary functions.)

 O nonlinearity 1 E0   nonlinearity 0 E1   nonlinearity 2 E2   nonlinearity 2 E3   nonlinearity 2 by bec        2*8 = 16     6*8 = 48        2*8 = 16     6*8 = 48 by bec        3*2 = 6     1*2 = 2        3*2 = 6     2*1 = 2 by bec 6*4 = 24 3*8 = 24 by bec 6*4 = 24 3*8 = 24 2*4 = 8     1*8 = 8 by ggsec by ggsec by ggsec by ggsec

ggbec O with 128 functions

ggbec O ordered according to bec

8 * 8 = 64 functions:

8 * 8 = 64 functions:

ggbec E0 with 16 functions

ggbec E0 ordered according to bec

3 * 2 = 6 functions:

3 * 2 = 6 functions:

2 functions:

2 * 1 = 2 functions:

ggbec E1 with 48 functions

ggbec E1 ordered according to 'bec'

6 * 4 = 24 functions:

3 * 8 = 24 functions:

ggbec E2 with 48 functions

ggbec E2 ordered according to bec

6 * 4 = 24 functions:

3 * 8 = 24 functions:

ggbec E3 with 16 functions

Monotone functions

The right Hasse diagram in the following file shows the 20 monotonic Boolean functions with 3 variables.
The descriptions show, when the mouse is moved over the diagram:

In the linked files the monotonic functions are always in the top right position.