Starting from the definition of 'information' as a physical surrogate of knowledge (i.e. a spoken or written record), its relation to the originator, and its transformations on communication to a recipient, and the recipient's mental state and possibly physical (social) reactions to it, are discussed. The transformations of 'information' in information retrieval systems are also considered. It is argued that this is the essential basis for developing a true information science.
As noted by Michael Buckland (1991), Farradane states that "'information' should be defined as any physical form of representation, or surrogate, of knowledge, or of a particular thought, used for communication." (p. 4) 
↑This passage around "physical form" appears so delicate that it should be handled very carefully. Perhaps it may better be phrased as "'information' would first of all be regarded as any explicit representation or evidence, expression or surrogate, of some implicit thought or knowledge in mind, so as to be used for communication." Furthermore, it could be extendedly applied to whatever is observed or experienced as a sign of some sort. Note, however, that whether observation or experience is fated to be framed by the worldview or state of cumulative knowledge.
The shade of the bar looks invariant in isolation but variant in context, in (favor of) sharp contrast with the color gradient background, hence an innateillusion we have to reasonably interpret and overcome as well as the mirage. Such variance appearing seasonably from context to context may not only be the case with our vision but worldview in general in practice indeed, whether a priori or a posteriori. Perhaps no worldview from nowhere, without any point of view or prejudice at all!
Ogden & Richards (1923) said, "All experience ... is either enjoyed or interpreted ... or both, and very little of it escapes some degree of interpretation."
H. G. Wells (1938) said, "The human individual is born now to live in a society for which his fundamental instincts are altogether inadequate."